NEWS Mental Health News Climate Anxiety Air Pollution Exposure in Childhood Linked to Mental Health Concerns at Age 18 By Lauren Rowello Lauren Rowello Twitter Lauren Rowello is a writer focusing on mental health, parenting, and identity. Their work has been published in the New York Times, Washington Post, and more. Learn about our editorial process Updated on September 16, 2021 Fact checked Verywell Mind content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. We rely on the most current and reputable sources, which are cited in the text and listed at the bottom of each article. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Learn more. by Aaron Johnson Fact checked by Aaron Johnson Aaron Johnson is a fact checker and expert on qualitative research design and methodology. Learn about our editorial process Share Tweet Email Print Getty Images Key Takeaways A recent study indicates that young adults who were exposed to air pollution as children experience higher rates of mental health challenges at age 18 when compared to peers with less exposure.Air pollution—due to smog, acid rain, motor vehicles, and other causes—negatively affects the central nervous system, which could lead to these mental health concerns.Those who live near roadways or other areas where exposure to air pollutants is highest are most at risk for its negative impacts because of chronic exposure. New research published in JAMA Network Open highlights the tangible impact of nitrogen oxide and particulate matter, two air pollutants that can impact the central nervous system and lead to both physical and mental health concerns. These findings underline that children who were exposed to air pollution during development are at increased risk for mental health challenges when compared to their peers who had less exposure. What Is Environmental Racism? Understanding the Dangers of Air Pollution Researchers followed a cohort of 2,039 children born in the United Kingdom during 1994 and 1995 throughout childhood and then interviewed them at age 18 to analyze psychological symptoms as they related to a variety of risk factors. The research team isolated the risk factor of air pollutants to find that increased exposure to nitrogen oxide and particulate matter correlate with greater risk for mental health concerns. Helen L. Fisher, PhD Our findings showed that youth exposed to higher levels of outdoor air pollution, particularly nitrogen oxides, experienced greater mental health problems at the transition to adulthood. — Helen L. Fisher, PhD Helen L. Fisher, PhD, reader in developmental psychopathology at King’s College London, explains that nitrogen oxide (NOx) should not be confused with nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, which is a different chemical compound. Nitrogen oxide isn't used at the dentist. Instead, this chemical compound has a strong, harsh odor and comes with a familiar brownish haze that hovers over large cities or industrial zones. Dr. Fisher says that nitrogen oxide is a regulated compound created by motor vehicles and industrial waste, noting that high concentrations are often found near busy roads. She says that these gaseous pollutants contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain. Additionally, researchers measured levels of particulate matter or particle pollution, which are extremely small solid particles and liquid droplets also suspended in the air. Dr. Fisher explains, "It mainly comes from motor vehicles, wood burning heaters, and industry. During forest fires or dust storms, particle pollution can reach extremely high concentrations." How Does Your Environment Affect Your Mental Health? Exposure Could Lead to Mental Illness Researchers found that higher rates of exposure to these air pollutants during childhood and adolescence was associated with greater overall mental health issues by age 18. Dr. Fisher explains that these mental health issues included internally expressed conditions, such as depression and anxiety; externally expressed conditions, such as conduct disorder and substance abuse; and conditions related to distortions in thinking, such as seeing or hearing things that are not there. These findings could not be explained by other risk factors, including children's previous mental health concerns, biological factors and family history of mental illness, or risks associated with poverty and neighborhood differences. Helen L. Fisher, PhD Air pollution may contribute significantly to the global burden of psychiatric disease, and interventions to improve air quality may result in improved mental health at the population level. — Helen L. Fisher, PhD Dr. Fisher explains that air pollution is negatively impacting mental health, highlighting that exposure could be considered a risk factor for developing mental illness. Air pollution is already linked to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, strokes, and other diseases of the central nervous system. Because of the correlation between early-life exposure and an increased risk of mental health symptoms, additional diagnoses—including mental illness—could be linked with exposure. Major Link Found Between Air Pollution and Neurological Disorders How Air Pollution Impacts the Brain Experts know these toxins impact the brain, made clear by their link to diseases of the central nervous system. But Dr. Fisher explains that further study is needed to understand exactly how air pollution is reaching and harming the central nervous system, highlighting the specific need to continue measuring links between exposure and negative outcomes. She says that air pollution reaches the brain directly by traveling along the nasal nervous system and can indirectly impact the brain through systemic inflammation. Air pollution is also known to enter the vascular system, which creates a pathway to possibly enter the brain through the blood-brain barrier, a semipermeable border that controls the flow of nutrients and helps to protect the brain from toxins. Dr. Fisher explains that air pollution can interfere with the brain's ideal function—ultimately leading to the disruption and death of neurons, the cells which receive sensory input and send messages from the brain to other parts of the body. Neurotransmitters, which carry signals between neurons, play a strong role in mental health. Imbalance and disruption are known to lead to certain mental health conditions. These effects are chronic and cumulative and might not cause tangible effects for many years. Dr. Fisher points out that this is a particular concern for children whose brains may not fully develop or may not function normally if they are impacted, possibly leading to mental health problems. In addition to affecting mental health by negatively impacting the central nervous system, air pollution is often accompanied by adjacent stressors. Dr. Fisher underlines that nitrogen oxide mainly comes from vehicle emissions and therefore comes with the problem of noisy traffic—which can disrupt sleep and lead to other mental health concerns. Street Trees Near Your Home May Reduce Risk of Depression Air Pollution, Global Warming, and Injustice Intersect Dr. Fisher says more research is needed to understand the impact of air pollution on specific populations. She explains that her findings are most relevant for countries with moderate air pollution and regulatory controls, explaining that research should be continued to determine associations in nations with higher rates of air pollution exposure, including China, Nepal, and India. The World Health Organization currently estimates that 9 out of 10 people worldwide are exposed to high levels of outdoor air pollutants. Exposure comes from a combination of fossil fuel combustion in vehicles, power plants, and waste disposal as well as manufacturing and industrial processes. The American Lung Association’s “State of the Air” 2021 report says, “People of color are more than three times more likely to be breathing the most polluted air than white people.” This emphasizes that marginalized people are at much greater risk for exposure and the negative effects that follow. Elizabeth Brandt, field manager for Moms Clean Air Force, cites “heat islands”—urban areas which experience higher temperatures than surrounding neighborhoods—as a contributing risk factor, because air pollution levels increase when temperatures rise. People who live and work in areas that have a high concentration of buildings with little space for greenery are 1 to 7 degrees hotter than outlying areas. People who are Black, age 65 and older, and/or have lower incomes have historically been most negatively impacted. Elizabeth Brandt, MSW Sometimes there's no way to move away from the dirty air. The only thing to do to protect your family is to have a federal regulation that monitors the things that cause the air pollution. — Elizabeth Brandt, MSW Brandt underlines that climate change is impacting air quality for indigenous people as wildfires increase in frequency and intensity on and near Tribal lands. This community is also negatively affected by diesel fuel pollution due to a reliance on older vehicles and, because of a lower rate of access to electricity, more reliance on generators. This highlights the link between systemic oppression and increased risk for exposure to air pollutants. Overall, air pollution levels dropped during COVID-19 lockdowns, which means exposure likely decreased as well. Projections determined that shifts in behavior due to the pandemic—namely a decrease in travel and daily commutes—reduced nitrogen oxide pollutants in many areas (including major cities) between 11% and 49%. This highlights that as a global community, it's possible to pursue measurable change. How to Safely Enjoy the Outdoors This Summer Although concerns about air quality are serious, don't let worries about air pollution keep you inside all season. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) explains that it's still safest to gather with friends and family outdoors, especially if you'll be around those who aren't vaccinated. It's also really good for your mental health. Teens who were able to get outdoors during lockdown reported higher rates of emotional well-being compared to peers, and that number was even higher when time outdoors was spent with their families. Additionally, experiences in nature reduce symptoms of ADHD and increase both mood and self-esteem. Brandt underlines that ozone pollution, a broad term that includes nitrogen oxide and other gaseous pollutants, is heat-reactive. This means it's worst when it's hottest outside. For many, air pollution is within acceptable ranges during fall, winter, and spring months but becomes a concern over the summer. Brandt says that the best way to enjoy the outdoors in warm weather is to plan ahead. Schedule activities for the morning when the sun isn't at its hottest and check the local air quality report before venturing outside. Understanding the risks will empower everyone to protect themselves and can inspire organized action against pollutants. Seek support through various national and local organizations already gathering resources and making a difference. What This Means for You Although concerns about air pollution are serious, you should still spend time outdoors during days and times when risks for exposure are lowest. To limit the effects of air pollution, check your local area quality report and plan outings for the morning or in the evening.If you're inspired to learn more about the effects of air pollution on your local community and get involved in efforts to take regulatory action against pollution, check out advocacy groups to connect with like-minded people who are already doing the work. Nature Can Improve Mental Health During the Pandemic, Study Finds The information in this article is current as of the date listed, which means newer information may be available when you read this. For the most recent updates on COVID-19, visit our coronavirus news page. 15 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Reuben A, Arseneault L, Beddows A, et al. Association of air pollution exposure in childhood and adolescence with psychopathology at the transition to adulthood. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(4):e217508. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.7508 Bandyopadhyay A. Neurological disorders from ambient (urban) air pollution emphasizing UFPM and PM2.5. Curr Pollution Rep. 2016;2(3):203-211. doi:10.1007/s40726-016-0039-z Sirgy MJ. Positive balance at the physiological level: Positive and negative neurotransmitters. Positive Balance. Published online 2020. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-40289-1_2 Pratt G, Vadali M, Kvale D, Ellickson K. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: Addressing inequities in exposure and risk. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015;12(5). doi:10.3390/ijerph120505355 WHO. Air pollution. Who.int. Manisalidis I, Stavropoulou E, Stavropoulos A, Bezirtzoglou E. Environmental and health impacts of air pollution: A review. Frontiers in Public Health. 2020;8(14). doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014 US EPA. Learn about heat islands. US EPA. Gronlund CJ. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in heat-related health effects and their mechanisms: A review. Current Epidemiology Reports. 2014;1(3). doi:10.1007/s40471-014-0014-4 Sandoval CJK. EBA brief: Principles to advance energy justice for Native Americans. SSRN Electronic Journal. Published online 2020. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3770406 Zhang Z, Arshad A, Zhang C, Hussain S, Li W. Unprecedented temporary reduction in global air pollution associated with COVID-19 forced confinement: A continental and city scale analysis. Remote Sensing. 2020;12(15). doi:10.3390/rs12152420 CDC. COVID-19 and your health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Jackson SB, Stevenson KT, Larson LR, Peterson MN, Seekamp E. Outdoor activity participation improves adolescents’ mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(5):2506. doi:10.3390/ijerph18052506 Thygesen M, Engemann K, Holst GJ, et al. The association between residential green space in childhood and development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2020;128(12):127011. doi:10.1289/EHP6729 Javelle F, Laborde S, Hosang TJ, Metcalfe AJ, Zimmer P. The importance of nature exposure and physical activity for psychological health and stress perception: evidence from the first lockdown period during the coronavirus pandemic 2020 in France and Germany. Front Psychol. 2021;12:623946. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.623946 Guttikunda SK, Gurjar BR. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2011;184(5). doi:10.1007/s10661-011-2182-8 By Lauren Rowello Lauren Rowello is a writer focusing on mental health, parenting, and identity. Their work has been published in the New York Times, Washington Post, and more. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.