Neurological Disorders Alzheimer's Disease Guide Alzheimer's Disease Guide Signs & Symptoms Causes & Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatment Living With Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease By Sanjana Gupta Sanjana Gupta Sanjana is a health writer and editor. Her work spans various health-related topics, including mental health, fitness, nutrition, and wellness. Learn about our editorial process Updated on August 01, 2022 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Huma Sheikh, MD Medically reviewed by Huma Sheikh, MD Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Huma Sheikh, MD, is a board-certified neurologist, specializing in migraine and stroke, and affiliated with Mount Sinai of New York. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print shapecharge / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Signs & Symptoms Complications & Comorbidities Frequently Asked Questions Next in Alzheimer's Disease Guide Causes and Risk Factors of Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that can cause confusion, memory loss, and cognitive decline. It is the most common type of dementia. Alzheimer’s is a progressive, irreversible condition, which means that symptoms gradually go from mild to worse until the person cannot communicate or function independently. The progression of this condition is categorized into four stages: pre-clinical stage, early stage, middle stage, and late stage. Each person experiences the symptoms and progresses through the stages in their own way. However, knowing what each stage may involve can help family members and healthcare providers prepare and plan out care for a person with Alzheimer’s disease. Is Alzheimer's Disease Genetic? Signs & Symptoms These are the signs and symptoms of each stage of Alzheimer’s disease. While the symptoms in the initial stages can be mistaken for normal signs of aging, they become more severe with time. Pre-clinical Stage This is the stage before any of the symptoms appear. Though the person may not show any outward signs of the disease, their brain may have started shrinking and declining. These changes within the brain can sometimes begin 10 years before any symptoms become apparent. Early Stage Early-stage Alzheimer's has mild symptoms. The person may appear healthy but can often forget or struggle with some things. In the early stages, they may be aware of their forgetfulness or struggles. Loved ones like friends and family members may notice them too. The sense that something is wrong may come gradually. These are some of the symptoms of early-stage Alzheimer’s: Forgetfulness, like being unable to remember names, common objects, recent events, or appointments Confusion with time and place Trouble learning or remembering new things Repetitive speech or questions Impaired judgment and questionable decisions Aggressive speech or manner Reduced spontaneity or initiative Delayed reactions Slower speech Difficulty with multistep tasks like cooking Difficulty managing money or finances Trouble with organizing or planning Personality or mood changes Even as symptoms worsen, the person may retain some skills, like singing, dancing, listening to music, reading, telling stories, reminiscing, or doing arts and crafts. These functions are controlled by parts of the brain that may not be affected in the early stages. What Are the Early Signs of Dementia? Middle Stage Middle-stage (mid-stage) Alzheimer’s has moderate symptoms. This stage can sometimes last for many years. The person may gradually be unable to work and require the assistance of a family member or caregiver. The symptoms of mid-stage Alzheimer’s can include: Confusion and disorientation Memory loss, like being unable to remember their own name Difficulty recognizing family and friends, even though they may seem familiar Trouble with daily tasks, like getting dressed Difficulty with language and speech Difficulty with reading, writing, and numbers Angry outbursts or vulgar language Illogical thoughts Reduced attention span Inability to cope with new situations Tendency to wander or get lost, even in familiar places Unusual behavior, like getting undressed in public or keeping objects in strange places Restlessness or agitation Obsessive or repetitive behavior Mood swings Social withdrawal Tearfulness Anxiety Hallucinations Delusions Paranoia and distrust of family members and caretakers Muscle twitches Repetitive movements Sleep disruptions Some symptoms, like restlessness, agitation, anxiety, tearfulness, or the tendency to wander, can worsen in the second half of the day, i.e., between late afternoon and night. This is known as sundowning. Late Stage Severe symptoms characterize late-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Often, the person is unable to respond or communicate. As a result, they may require full-time care and supervision. Toward the end, they may be in bed all the time. The symptoms of late-stage Alzheimer’s can include: Difficulty eating and swallowingSevere weight lossLoss of bladder and bowel controlTrouble communicatingLack of situational awareness Difficulty sitting, standing, or walking, which can lead to frequent fallsInability to perform personal hygiene tasksFrequent sleepingSeizuresSkin infectionsGrunting and groaning The mid and late stages of Alzheimer’s can be particularly distressing for both the patient and the family and caregivers. Therefore, it’s important to practice self-care, develop a support system you can rely on, and seek therapy if you need it. What Are the Stages of Alzheimer's Disease? Complications & Comorbidities These are some of the complications and comorbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): In the early stages, a person who misplaces things, forgets appointments, or can’t recall words may be diagnosed with MCI. It can be an early warning sign of Alzheimer’s. However, everyone with MCI doesn’t necessarily develop Alzheimer’s disease; many people can take care of themselves and live an independent life with MCI. Pneumonia: People with Alzheimer’s can get aspiration pneumonia if food or liquids enter their lungs due to difficulties with swallowing. Pneumonia is a common cause of death among Alzheimer’s patients. Other complications: Stroke, infections, delirium, and certain medications can worsen the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Researchers Confirm Link Between Alzheimer’s and Gut Microbiota Frequently Asked Questions These are some of the frequently asked questions about the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. When do the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease typically start? People who have late-onset Alzheimer’s may start to see symptoms in their mid-60s; however, people with early-onset Alzheimer’s may start to see symptoms as early as their 30s. How can you differentiate normal forgetfulness from the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease? It’s natural to forget things occasionally, especially as you get older. For instance, you may forget where you’ve parked your car or a few details from an event. You may even forget someone’s name and then remember it later. With Alzheimer’s however, you may forget what your car looks like or that an event took place altogether. You may not be able to remember ever knowing a person. If you're frequently forgetful, you should inform your healthcare provider. They can review your symptoms and conduct tests in order to determine whether it's due to the normal course of aging or a health condition like Alzheimer's. Other health conditions can also cause memory loss. How to Improve Memory Effectively Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Cleveland Clinic. Alzheimer’s disease: symptoms, causes, treatments. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Stages of Alzheimer's disease. National Institute on Aging. What are the signs of Alzheimer's disease? Stanford Health Care. Alzheimer's disease symptoms. By Sanjana Gupta Sanjana is a health writer and editor. Her work spans various health-related topics, including mental health, fitness, nutrition, and wellness. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.