Stress Management Management Techniques Relaxation An Overview of Coherent Breathing By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety." Learn about our editorial process Updated on April 09, 2020 Reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by mental health professionals. Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Sara Clark Reviewed by Sara Clark Facebook Sara Clark is an EYT 500-hour certified Vinyasa yoga and mindfulness teacher, lululemon Global Yoga Ambassador, model, and writer. Learn about our Review Board Print Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Overview Effects Getting Started Getting Help Other Breathing Exercises Coherent Breathing is a form of breathing that involves taking long slow breaths at a rate of about five per minute. Coherent breathing, or deep breathing, helps to calm the body through its effect on the autonomic nervous system. Whether it is practiced as part of yoga or meditation, or simply on its own as a relaxation strategy, coherent breathing is a simple and easy way to reduce stress and calm down when feeling anxious. Coherent Breathing is a registered trademark of Coherence LLC. Note that this article describes a general technique and not the specific protocol or products developed by Coherence LLC. Overview Every day, you breathe in and out without giving it much thought. While it is true that breathing is an unconscious action, it is also unique in that we can bring it under conscious control. Coherent breathing takes advantage of this fact—by controlling our breath, we can affect our body in a positive way. What makes up a breath? There's the inhale, or the time during which you draw air into your lungs, and the exhale, when you expel the air from your body. Coherent breathing involves simply adjusting the length of time that you spend on each of these phases of breathing. Our natural tendency is to breathe at a rate of two to three seconds per inhale and exhale. We naturally consume an amount of air that is proportional to the length of our breaths. In coherent breathing, the goal is to extend the length of both the inhale and exhale to around six seconds (perhaps longer if you have a longer torso). This type of controlled breathing is sometimes practiced as part of yoga (the term "pranayama" refers to breath control within yoga practice). It is also used within meditation. However, controlled breathing can be practiced on its own without any fancy tools, detailed instructions, or the need for a therapist. All you need to do is change the length of your breaths. An altogether different type of breathwork is holotropic breathwork, which is usually performed in a group setting. How Yoga Can Help Reduce Stress How Coherent Breathing Works How does coherent breathing work to slow down your body? Breathing is one of many components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which also includes your heart rate, digestive system, and more. Your vagus nerve runs from your brain all the way down through to the opening of your diaphragm to the gut, and its purpose is to send signals to adjust the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system that form the ANS. This has effects on heart rate, digestion, and general feelings of being calm. In general, your vagus nerve has the job of slowing down your heart when it speeds up, to keep it at a steady resilient rate of 70 to 100. This is why the easiest way to activate your vagus nerve to put the neural brake on a racing heart is to slow down your breath. It's almost like a hack for your nervous system—you can do something within your conscious control that has an effect on processes that you otherwise can't directly control. In effect, if you can get your breathing to leave a stressed state, the rest of the parts of your autonomic nervous system will follow suit, creating a chain reaction that can help to reduce stress, anxiety, and related problems. Effects Research is still in its infancy regarding the effects of coherent breathing; however, there is lots of promising news. We know that this type of breathing may be helpful for insomnia, anxiety, depressive symptoms, stress, immune system response, alertness, concentration, vitality, post-traumatic stress disorder, and attention deficit disorder One study showed that levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased after a trial of controlled breathing; GABA is important because of its anti-anxiety effects. Another study showed that lower levels of cytokines were found after coherent breathing; these are linked to inflammation and stress. Getting Started If you are interested in practicing coherent breathing, the following steps will show you how to get started: Focus on your natural breaths. Count the length of each inhale and exhale to obtain a baseline.Find a comfortable position to practice coherent breathing. Place one hand on your stomach.Breath in for four seconds and then out for four seconds. Do this for one minute.Repeat, but extend your inhales and exhales to five seconds.Repeat again, extending further to six seconds. During this process, keep your hand on your stomach to make sure that you are breathing deeply from your diaphragm and not shallowly from your chest. You might feel as though you need to take a deep breath or that you can't stop your thoughts from wandering. That's okay! Just bring yourself back to focusing on your breathing and counting the length of your breaths in your head. If you find that you feel comfortable taking even longer breaths, feel free. Breaths as long as 10 seconds may feel right for some people. It's also okay to have a longer exhale than inhale. Once you're able to do this for five minutes, gradually work your way up to 20 minutes. You can practice anywhere! In bed at night, while waiting at the doctor's office, or even when driving. Don't try to force the breath or try to take in more air. This will happen naturally as you lengthen your breaths and get used to how it feels. Getting Help You don't have to try and practice coherent breathing all on your own without help. There are several options for you to try if you are having trouble. Yoga Join a yoga class. Most yoga classes will involve a breathwork component where you practice this type of breathing. A good instructor will also check to make sure you are not holding your breathing, and are making the most of your breath practice. This sort of group setting could be just the thing to get you breathing in a way that helps to calm your body. Breathing Workshops Yes, there are workshops just for breathing! Attend a workshop where you will learn how to practice coherent breathing. Most likely, you will practice with one or two other people and take turns making sure that each of you is doing it correctly. This can be an excellent way to get hands-on instruction and practice in this technique. Technology Technology can help you to practice coherent breathing. Download an app for your mobile phone that guides you through the proper lengths of inhaling and exhaling. Smart watches may also have this technology, so check all your devices to see what options are available to you. Even the simplest app could make the difference in helping you breathe correctly for the right length of time. When Breathing Isn't Helping If you've been practicing coherent breathing but still feel anxious and depressed, you may be wondering what you're doing wrong. It could be that negative thoughts are making it impossible for your body to stay in a relaxed state. Other methods such as cognitive-behavioral strategies may be helpful for you to manage these types of thoughts and reduce their impact. A good app to try for this is Woebot, which is a chat app that includes a thought challenger for dealing with negative thoughts. Other Breathing Exercises Interested in trying some other breathing exercises? Here are a couple of variations for you to try: Belly Breathing Sit on the floor or the edge of a chair. Place your hand on your stomach and as you inhale, lean forward. Then, as you exhale, curl forward to squeeze out your breath. Repeat this 15 to 20 times more. Energizing breathing Are you stuck at work and can't get energized? Try energized breathing in a standing position. Bend your elbows and face your palms up. As you inhale, draw your elbows back, palms continue to stay up. Then, as you exhale, thrust your palms forward and turn them downward, saying "HA." Repeat 15 times. Get Advice From The Verywell Mind Podcast Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast shares some techniques that can help you relax. Follow Now: Apple Podcasts / Spotify / Google Podcasts A Word From Verywell Coherent breathing is a simple technique that can have a large impact. Try this type of breathing if you are struggling with stress, anxiety, low mood, or other problems to see if it might help. If after practicing coherent breathing you still find that your symptoms are severe, it might be helpful to make an appointment with a doctor or mental health professional to discuss your options. What Coping Strategies Can Help Manage Stress? 4 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Jerath R, Crawford MW, Barnes VA, Harden K. Self-regulation of breathing as a primary treatment for anxiety. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Jun;40(2):107-15. doi:10.1007/s10484-015-9279-8 Streeter CC, Gerbarg PL, Brown RP, et al. Thalamic Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Level Changes in Major Depressive Disorder After a 12-Week Iyengar Yoga and Coherent Breathing Intervention. J Altern Complement Med. 2020;26(3):190-197. doi:10.1089/acm.2019.0234 Balasubramanian K, Harikumar K, Nagaraj N, Pati S. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Modulates Complexity of Heart Rate Variability Differently during Sleep and Wakefulness. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2017;20(4):403-407. doi:10.4103/aian.AIAN_148_17 Streeter CC, Gerbarg PL, Whitfield TH, et al. Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder with Iyengar Yoga and Coherent Breathing: A Randomized Controlled Dosing Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2017;23(3):201-207. doi:10.1089/acm.2016.0140 Additional Reading Alderman L. Breathe. Exhale. Repeat: The benefits of controlled breathing. Huffpost Healthy Living. HuffPost stress-less challenge, Day 5: Coherent breathing. Perciavalle V, Blandini M, Fecarotta P, Buscemi A, Di Corrado D, Bertolo L, et al. The role of deep breathing on stress. Neurol Sci. 2017 Mar;38(3):451–8. Serafim SD, da Ponte FDR, Lima FM, Martins DS, Rosa AR, Kunz M. Effects of deep breathing in patients with bipolar disorder. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2018 Sep 6; Streeter CC, Gerbarg PL, Whitfield TH, Owen L, Johnston J, Silveri MM, et al. Treatment of major depressive disorder with Iyengar yoga and coherent breathing: A randomized controlled dosing study. J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Mar;23(3):201–7. By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety." See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? 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