Devaluation and Idealization in BPD

Sad woman leaning against a wall in a hallway
PeopleImages / Getty Images
In This Article

Devaluation and idealization are defense mechanisms that help a person manage their anxiety as well as internal or external stresses. While this subconscious protection system can be found in a few personality disorders, it is most often associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD).

What Is Idealization?

Idealization is a psychological or mental process of attributing overly positive qualities to another person or thing. It's a way of coping with anxiety in which an object or person of ambivalence is viewed as perfect, or as having exaggerated positive qualities.

It's common with borderline personality disorder for a person to idealize a friend, family member, or loved one.

They feel intense closeness towards that person and place them on a pedestal. This can quickly and unpredictably change to intense anger toward that person, a process called devaluation.

What Is Devaluation?

In psychiatry and psychology, devaluation is a defense mechanism that is just the opposite of idealization. It's used when a person attributes themselves, an object, or another person as completely flawed, worthless, or as having exaggerated negative qualities.

Defense Mechanisms

Both devaluation and idealization are considered to be on a minor image-distorting level on the Defensive Functioning Scale. This is one tool is used by doctors to group patient's defense mechanisms into levels.

Like most defense mechanisms, many people are not aware they are engaging in devaluation and idealization. It's done subconsciously as a way to protect themselves from perceived stress.

In borderline personality disorder, devaluation often alternates with idealization. For instance, a person with BPD may shift from great admiration for a loved one — idealization of that person — to an intense anger or dislike towards that person — devaluation of that person.

This wild shift between idealization and devaluation found in BPD is known as splitting, which signifies a disturbance in both thinking and emotion regulation. It reflects challenges in maintaining an integrated view of the good and bad in a person under stress.

It reflects challenges in maintaining an integrated view of the good and bad in a person under stress. Some researchers suggest that some of the difficulty is rooted in the way the brain in the borderline personality, particularly the amygdala and prefrontal lobe, activate in these experiences.

Other Personality Disorders

Devaluation is not limited to people with borderline personality disorder. It may be seen in other personality disorders, especially antisocial personality disorder or narcissistic personality disorder.

Idealization is sometimes also seen in narcissistic personality disorder, especially towards the self or the treating therapist. Splitting, or the rapid fluctuation between idealization and devaluation, is classically seen in borderline personality disorder.

Do I Have BPD?

Devaluation and idealization are defense mechanisms commonly used in borderline personality disorder. That said, just because you engage in these defense mechanisms does not mean you have BPD — it's simply a feature of this disorder. Speak with your doctor or a therapist if you are concerned that you use coping strategies like these to deal with emotional conflict or stress.

Was this page helpful?
Article Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Perry JC, Presniak MD, Olson TR. Defense Mechanisms in Schizotypal, Borderline, Antisocial, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders. Psychiatry. 2013;76(1):32-52. doi:10.1521/psyc.2013.76.1.32

  2. Sadock BJ, Kaplan HI. Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. 10th editionPhiladelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

  3. DeFife JA, Hilsenroth MJ. Clinical Utility of the Defensive Functioning Scale in the Assessment of Depression. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;193(3):176-182. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000154839.43440.35

  4. Pec O, Bob P, Raboch J. Splitting in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e91228. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091228

Related Articles