Self-Improvement Verywell Mind's Dietary Supplement Methodology How we choose dietary supplements to recommend on Verywell Mind By Autumn Rauchwerk, MS, RDN, E-RYT Updated on February 04, 2022 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Akeem Marsh, MD Medically reviewed by Akeem Marsh, MD LinkedIn Twitter Akeem Marsh, MD, is a board-certified child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist who has dedicated his career to working with medically underserved communities. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print The content of this methodology is for informational purposes only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any question you may have regarding dietary supplements. At Verywell Mind, we aim to provide you with informative and unbiased information on products related to mental health and well-being. We recognize that there are many supplements out there promising solutions to mental health challenges, including stress, anxiety, and depression. We work hard to cut through the bold claims and give accurate, research-backed insight on supplements and mental health. Please remember that, while supplements may be part of your treatment plan, they alone will not treat mental health conditions. Additionally, each individual’s body responds differently to medications and supplements, and something that works for others with similar symptoms or a similar condition will not necessarily work for you. Sometimes, the very supplement that worked for a friend or family member may even worsen your symptoms. That is why, if you choose to use a supplement for the management of a mental health condition, it is crucial to work closely with a licensed medical provider. There are many tools to help manage or alleviate mental health conditions, and your provider can help you find the tools that work best for you to find relief—whether or not that includes supplements. In order to navigate the dietary supplement industry, our team of registered dietitians carefully reviews the research, interviews experts with decades of experience in the field of dietary supplement research, and utilizes unbiased resources that are rooted in science, including the National Institute of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements. Beyond this, our methodology is medically reviewed by a doctor to ensure its accuracy. To explain our methodology of selecting nutrition supplements, we will cover the following: The benefits and risks of dietary supplementsWhich supplements we choose to feature (and what we skip) on Verywell Mind and whyProduct attributes that matter to us and the evidence that backs up these attribute choices Verywell / Anastasiia Tretiak What are Dietary Supplements? Dietary supplements contain ingredients intended to supplement your diet, including vitamins, minerals, herbs and botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes, among others. Other popular dietary supplements include omega-3s, probiotics, and protein powders. Supplement Facts Label Products sold as dietary supplements come in packaging with a Supplement Facts label that lists the ingredients, amount per serving, and a suggested serving size. This label is typically found on the outer packaging or the back of the supplement container. This information helps you know what the key active ingredients in the supplement are, as well as other ingredients such as flavors, fillers, and binders. Use this label as a guide to know what is—and isn’t—in your supplement. Supplement labels are required by law to list what vitamins and minerals they contain and in what quantity. It is important to note that supplements are not regulated by the FDA, so it is up to the manufacturer to comply with labeling guidelines. Just because a label says the supplement contains certain ingredients in certain quantities, there is no guarantee that it is accurate. If you take a closer look at the label, you may notice a section called “Other ingredients,” which commonly includes fillers and excipients. These ingredients often help to optimize the manufacturing process or bind a supplement together. Not all fillers and excipients are harmful, but they also aren’t always necessary in a product. It’s best to take a closer look to know exactly what is in your supplement. Our editors, writers, and fact checkers use Supplements Facts labels, product packaging, manufacturer data, research, and third party testing to provide you with clear information about the supplements we recommend on Verywell Mind. Are Dietary Supplements Beneficial? Supplements May: In certain circumstances, improve overall health by preventing nutrition gaps.Replete levels of a diagnosed deficiency.Potentially help manage specific symptoms or health conditions. Supplements are NOT: Appropriate for everyone.Intended to be used without the monitoring of a health professional.Intended to treat, prevent, or cure health conditions or disease states. It is best to get our nutrients from the foods we eat, and supplementation is, in most cases, only useful when nutrient needs cannot be met through the diet or there are increased needs due to a life stage or medical condition. There are no recommendations for the general population regarding supplements because each person’s needs and risk of deficiency is different. We recommend that you have your nutrient needs evaluated by a healthcare provider based on recommendations for your specific condition in combination with a blood panel to screen for deficiencies. When it comes to mental health in particular, certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies may be linked to psychological side effects and conditions. Inadequate nutrition often exists before a psychiatric diagnosis—for example, poor diet is a risk factor for depression. Additionally, supplementation might improve the prognosis for certain conditions, depending on the deficiency, the condition, and the individual. For example, B12 deficiency is tied to irritability and cognitive impairment. Supplementation can help alleviate these symptoms. Dietary supplements may also be particularly helpful for those who cannot consume or absorb certain nutrients well, have higher needs because of a condition or disease state, or are following specific restrictive diets. For example, people who have had surgery on their ileum (portion of the small intestine) may not absorb vitamin B12 efficiently and may require supplementation. Similarly, vegans or vegetarians who choose not to eat meat may benefit from supplementing vitamin B12. Risks of Dietary Supplements While dietary supplements can provide various benefits, they also pose potential risks due to the lack of product regulation and improper usage. Dietary supplements are not regulated in the United States, meaning the FDA does not approve them for safety and effectiveness before products are marketed. A supplement manufacturer only has to notify the FDA if a product contains a completely new ingredient, and even then the FDA will only review, not approve, the product. Even if supplements are third-party tested, that does not mean that they are necessarily safe and effective for all. Always speak with a healthcare provider to check whether a supplement is appropriate for your needs and health concerns. It is possible to take too much, to create a nutrient imbalance from improper usage, and for supplements to interact with other supplements or prescribed medications. Specifically in the case of mental health treatment, herbal supplements can interact with prescribed mental health medications, such as anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications. Supplement Excess & Toxicity In a few cases, taking larger than recommended amounts of dietary supplements is dangerous. While many people think that you “pee out” excess amounts of vitamins, there are certain vitamins that are stored in the body, including fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins K, A, D, and E. While most side effects of excess vitamins or minerals are mild and easily treatable, excessive amounts of a few types of vitamins or minerals can reach the point of toxicity, where there are potentially dangerous side effects. For example, excessive iron can cause nausea and vomiting, as well as liver damage. It’s also important to consider that many foods we consume are fortified with vitamins and minerals, and these nutrients contribute to our overall daily intake. For example: Breakfast cereals are typically fortified with vitamin A, vitamin D, and B vitamins.Milk is often fortified with vitamins A and D.Protein bars and beverages are considered dietary supplements, and they contain a variety of nutrients. If you consume fortified foods regularly, consider how these products contribute to your overall nutrition needs. Interactions Supplements may interact with medications or result in dangerous side effects. For example, St. John’s Wort, a common herbal supplement used for depression, can interact with antidepressant medication to create a dangerous—potentially fatal—increase in the body’s serotonin levels. It can also weaken prescription medications used for other conditions, like birth control pills, and some HIV and cancer drugs. While supplements may sound like “natural” alternatives to medications, they still have the potential to change the chemical activities within your body. Prescription medications have been thoroughly researched and vetted, and prescribing healthcare providers are well-versed in their uses and side effects, while supplements do not undergo any such scrutiny. Supplements should not be used as a substitute for prescription medications recommended by a healthcare provider. Even if the manufacturer website makes big promises, this does not mean these claims are supported by research. Supplements are not intended to treat, prevent, or cure conditions or diseases. Always speak with a healthcare provider about all of the supplements and medications you are taking or plan to take. Other Considerations with Dietary Supplements Nutritional needs vary by gender, age, weight, and many other factors. Always speak with a healthcare provider to ensure that you select the appropriate supplement and dose for your needs. Note that “natural” doesn’t always mean safe. Many people assume that because herbal supplements are made from plants, they are completely harmless. Similarly, many people assume that a supplement that includes many different ingredients must be beneficial because the more nutrients the better, right? In fact, herbal supplements and multi-ingredient supplements can contribute to liver damage and can potentially interfere with medications. Many supplements contain a wide variety of vitamins and minerals and sometimes also include herbal ingredients, so it’s always important to check the supplement facts label and inspect the ingredient list closely to ensure each ingredient is appropriate for you. Dietary Supplements for Different Mental Health Conditions Nutrient supplements include vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. While common nutrient supplements are unlikely to cause serious side effects or interact with psychiatric medications, there are a number of potential interactions between herbal supplements and conventional medications, including antidepressants. While it may be tempting to view supplements as the solution for mental health conditions, supplements are only helpful in certain instances and in combination with other treatments, which is known as adjunctive treatment. Supplements alone do not improve or treat the condition. It is important to note that supplements differ widely from one another and treatment benefits differ widely by condition and by individual. For example, polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment for some people struggling with depression but not for people with schizophrenia, while folate supplementation may serve as adjunctive treatments for both depression and schizophrenia. In some cases, deficiencies are linked to chronic psychiatric conditions. For example, deficiencies in vitamin D and folate are associated with schizophrenia. Although it is not yet clear whether or not deficiency may be a cause of schizophrenia, vitamin D supplementation may help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Vitamin D supplementation may also help improve attention span and other symptoms in patients with schizophrenia when combined with antipsychotic treatment. What Supplements Does Verywell Mind Recommend? Supplements can be tricky territory, so we do the tough work of weeding through multiple products and brands to present you with a variety of high-quality options based on your values, budget, and preferences. Before we get to the stage of choosing specific products, we make choices about what we ethically support and what we don’t. We take a food-first approach—we recommend meeting nutritional needs through foods as close to their original state as possible rather than through supplements. When needs cannot be met through the diet, we may recommend, depending on the scenario and demonstrated needs: individual vitamin and mineral supplements, multivitamins, certain probiotic strains, electrolyte solutions, and macronutrient supplements. As the research is sparse on concentrated herbal supplements, we recommend herbal teas rather than herbal supplement tinctures and pills and will only make recommendations on herbal supplements if and when the research supports it. Within each of these product categories, we are extremely judicious about what brands and products we support based on various factors (see the attributes explained below), but most importantly, the ingredients used. This list will evolve as more research comes to the forefront and new products come to market. Our team will continuously question the safety, validity, and effectiveness of supplements and modify our recommendations accordingly. We Do Not Support: Supplements with claims that are not supported by clinical researchSupplements that are potentially dangerous (beyond the typical risks associated with nutritional supplements)Weight loss supplements, including diet pillsExercise and sports performance products that may be harmful to athletesSupplements with sexual enhancement claims It’s important to note that many potentially dangerous and poor quality supplements claim to be supported by research. Any company can conduct research strategically to uphold their claims, so it is critical to look at the study design, size, and conflict of interest statement to analyze whether the study is valid. The type of research that makes the strongest case for supplement effectiveness consists of randomized controlled studies. This means that people are randomly assigned to take a specific amount of a supplement or to be part of the control group (not taking the supplement), and researchers look at the differences between the two groups after a certain amount of time. These studies provide strong evidence when they include large groups of people in their trials and are not conducted by or paid for by any individual or organization with a financial interest in the supplement. Moving forward, in order to recommend a supplement, we ensure that there is substantial good-quality research to demonstrate its efficacy. How Do We Choose Supplements to Recommend? Have you ever walked down the supplement aisle and stared blankly at a shelf, overwhelmed by the amount of choices for a simple multivitamin tablet or vitamin C capsule? We certainly have. We aim to do the research for you so you can easily choose what works best for you. Our team of experienced editors, including an on-staff dietitians, chooses which topics to cover on Verywell Mind. This team collaborates with expert writers to choose the best products in each category, such as vitamin D, elderberry, and vitamin C. We aim to provide you with simple, evidence-based information to help you make an educated buying decision. Research-Backed Efficacy & Safety At Verywell Mind, our number one priority is to recommend products that have substantial, good quality research to back their efficacy and safety. We know how confusing it can be to navigate the supplement world. Manufacturers fill their websites with vague promises of what their supplements will do for your body, like helping you perform at your peak or supporting emotional wellness, weight management, or digestive health. These claims can make us excited to try supplements to feel better and look better, but often these claims are not backed by research. We carefully comb through the research and don’t recommend supplements with only one study to back them up; we ensure there are a multitude of good quality studies to support a recommendation. If there is research that makes us skeptical about safety, we will not recommend that product. Independent Third-Party Tested & Certified Because nutrition supplements are not regulated or broadly tested in the United States, selecting a third-party tested product is important to ensure that you’re choosing a safe product. Third-party testing is a control process where an independent lab assesses a product to see if it meets certain criteria and standards. Popular third-party organizations include NSF, USP, and ConsumerLab. We prioritize products that have been third-party tested and certified by one of these three reliable organizations, and we will always highlight whether or not each product is third party tested and certified. These certifications can be expensive, so, if a supplement is not third-party tested or certified, it doesn’t automatically mean that it is not a good product. However, these certifications are the only way to feel confident that the labeling of the products is accurate. Please note that these third parties do not test for product efficacy, so, just because a product is third party verified, it does not mean that it is effective. Third-party testing simply helps ensure that a product contains what it says it contains and is not contaminated with other ingredients. The FDA does regulate what types of claims supplement labels can make. Supplements cannot claim to serve as a treatment, prevention, or cure for any disease. However, they can make three types of claims: Health claimsWhat they are: Health claims describe the relationship between a supplement ingredient and reduced risk of a disease or health conditionExample: Adequate iron helps reduce the risk of anemia.Nutrient content claimsWhat they are: Nutrient content claims state the percentage of a dietary ingredient that a supplement contains. Examples: One capsule contains 100% of the recommended daily value of Vitamin D or One capsule contains twice the calcium as in one glass of milk. Structure/function claimsWhat they are: Structure/function claims can describe how consumption of a nutrient or dietary ingredient that may affect the body’s normal structure or function, works to support that normal structure or function, contributes to general well-being, and/or may provide a benefit related to a disease caused by nutrient-deficiency.Examples: Iron is needed to transport oxygen in the body or Fiber supports digestion and satiety. While medicines sold in the USA must be approved by the FDA and are required to meet USP standards, dietary supplements do not require approval before they are marketed. USP standards are voluntary. Unlike medications, which have to be proven safe before they can be marketed, supplements are allowed to be marketed without any proof that they are safe or that they actually provide the benefits they claim to provide. Supplements can only be restricted or removed from the marketplace if the FDA proves that they are unsafe, which often means it is after harm has already been done. Other Product Attributes We Value We value some other attributes that we find to be associated with the highest quality products. These attributes are listed below with an explanation of why we value each and the evidence to support it. It’s important to note that these additional attributes may not be relevant to many vitamin and mineral supplements but may be more relevant to macronutrient supplements, such as protein powders. The products we select do not need to have all of these attributes, but these are values we find important when deciding between various products available on the market. Non-GMOOrganicMinimally Sweetened Beyond these standards, it’s important to note that: There are no supplements that are beneficial for everyone.The most important use of supplements is to manage an existing deficiency.Supplements will not solve any physical or mental health condition aside from deficiencies. Deficiencies are diagnosed by a healthcare provider via laboratory tests. Always be sure to read all of the ingredients in your supplement and their quantities, and research the purpose, action, and risks of each ingredient, including potential interactions with other supplements or prescription medications. Like with food, it is usually the case that the shorter and simpler the supplement’s ingredient list, the better. Non-GMO When possible, we select products that use non-GMO ingredients. While there is a variety of evidence that argues whether GMO products are safe or dangerous, we generally choose to recommend products closest to their natural state that are not genetically modified. While the evidence is inconclusive, choosing non-GMO products may be better for your health and the environment. We also look for the Non-GMO Project Verified certification on product packaging, which means that a product is compliant with the Non-GMO Project’s strict guidelines. When we think about genetically modified crops, such as soybeans and corn, another concern is glyphosate, an ingredient in herbicides such as Round-Up that are used to control weeds. This herbicide has been detected in a variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and cereals. Glyphosate is legal in the US, but some governments around the world prohibit it since glyphosate has been linked to an increased risk of certain cancers. For this reason, it may be beneficial to limit unnecessary exposure to glyphosate. Non-GMO does not mean free of glyphosate; however, it may limit the amount you’re exposed to. If you’re concerned about glyphosate, there is a Glyphosate Residue Free Certification that you can look for. Organic While some studies show that minimal amounts of chemical residue from non-organic foods are not dangerous to your health, organic products may be safer and healthier than conventionally grown products. For this reason, we work to include and highlight organic options when they are available and relevant. Minimally Sweetened Many people are concerned about consuming too much added sugar and choose to replace sugar with low calorie sweeteners and sugar alcohols. However, both artificial low calorie sweeteners and natural low calorie sweeteners may have the opposite effect than intended and affect blood sugar control, the gut microbiome, and appetite, and may actually lead to increased food consumption. Sugar alcohols can cause digestive problems such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, especially when consumed in large amounts. For these reasons, we emphasize supplements with minimal added sweeteners. Additional Considerations When Choosing Supplements When choosing which supplements to recommend, we are conscious of the quality-focused attributes listed above and consider individual preferences, such as form, price, and availability. We also care about the conditions in which the supplements are made. Form: Supplements come in many forms, including tablets, capsules, liquid, powder, lozenges, spray, and gummies. We aim to offer the highest quality supplements in a variety of forms that suit your preferences, as we understand that some individuals prefer gummies over capsules and vice versa. Price: Price is not always reflective of quality. A more expensive supplement doesn’t guarantee a better product. It’s also prudent to be skeptical of very inexpensive supplements. We aim to offer the best quality supplements at a variety of prices to fit most budgets. Some supplements are inherently more expensive to make than others, and the price is mostly dependent on ingredients, volume produced, and certifications obtained. Availability: We select over the counter nutritional supplements that are widely available. While some supplements are only available by prescription, subscription, or mail order, we include supplements that are in stock at local or online retailers for your convenience. Quality Control: While there is a lack of quality control on supplement ingredients, safety, and effectiveness, the FDA does have regulations for the supplement manufacturing process. Referred to as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) or cGMP (Current Good Manufacturing Practices), these regulations set the requirements for supplement companies to ensure that the supplement is made in a safe, clean laboratory that’s registered with the FDA. We recommend products that are made in GMP facilities. 20 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Dietary Supplement Labeling Guide: Chapter IV. Nutrition Labeling. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Firth J, Teasdale SB, Allott K, et al. The efficacy and safety of nutrient supplements in the treatment of mental disorders: A meta-review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. World Psychiatry. 2019;18(3):308-324. doi:10.1002/wps.20672 Firth J, Carney R, Stubbs B, et al. Nutritional deficiencies and clinical correlates in first-episode psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2017;44(6):1275-1292. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbx162 Bakaloudi DR, Halloran A, Rippin HL, et al. Intake and adequacy of the vegan diet. 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The psychotropic effect of vitamin D supplementation on schizophrenia symptoms. BMC Psychiatry. 2021;21(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-021-03308-w Label claims for conventional foods and dietary supplements. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Dietary Supplements: Public standards promote and protect public health. U.S. Pharmacopeia Blog. Weighing the GMO Arguments: For. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Weighing the GMO arguments: Against. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Glyphosate and Cancer Risk: Frequently Asked Questions. Center for Food Safety. Mie A, Andersen HR, Gunnarsson S, et al. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review. Environ Health. 2017;16(1):111. Published 2017 Oct 27. doi:10.1186/s12940-017-0315-4 Azad MB, Abou-Setta AM, Chauhan BF, et al. Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. CMAJ. 2017;189(28):E929-E939. Mäkinen KK. Gastrointestinal Disturbances Associated with the Consumption of Sugar Alcohols with Special Consideration of Xylitol: Scientific Review and Instructions for Dentists and Other Health-Care Professionals. Int J Dent. 2016;2016:5967907. doi:10.1155/2016/5967907 By Autumn Rauchwerk, MS, RDN, E-RYT Autumn is an editor, dietitian, registered yoga teacher, and certified intuitive eating counselor who specializes in myth-busting and providing a nuanced, wellbeing-centered perspective on nutrition, movement, mindfulness, and dietary supplements. She is the co-founder of mendinground nutrition & yoga, a private practice focused on helping people heal their relationships with food and their bodies. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? 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