GAD Symptoms Dissociation as a Symptom of Anxiety By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety." Learn about our editorial process Updated on November 05, 2021 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Steven Gans, MD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Verywell / JR Bee Table of Contents View All Table of Contents What Is Dissociation? Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Treatment Coping Dissociation anxiety is not a specific diagnosis or set of symptoms. Rather, dissociation is a symptom, and it may be related to anxiety. When a person experiences dissociation, they become disconnected from their surroundings or from themselves. This reaction works to temporarily alleviate potentially overwhelming emotional experiences such as traumatic memories and may temporarily reduce feelings of shame, anxiety, or fear—but it doesn't function as a healthy long-term fix. Dissociation related to anxiety may occur during a stressful, anxiety-inducing event or during or after a period of intense worry. Because dissociation is based in avoidance coping, it "works" in the short-term but has long-term negative consequences. What Is Dissociation? Dissociation refers to being disconnected from the present moment. It is a subconscious way of coping with and avoiding a traumatic situation or negative thoughts. While about half of people may have experienced an event of dissociation in their lifetime, only about 2% are actually diagnosed with what is known as a dissociative disorder. Dissociation usually happens in response to a traumatic life event such as that which is faced while being in the military or experiencing abuse. In this way, dissociation is usually associated with trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, dissociation can also happen in the context of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. Often, dissociation that happens due to extreme stress or panic is recognized but attributed to other causes such as health issues. A person with panic disorder may seek medical attention for these symptoms and feel powerless to stop them. Overall, dissociation interferes with the treatment of all types of disorders and makes it hard to pay attention to the present moment. It can also slow or prevent healthy trauma processing and coping. Because of this, it's important to address dissociation through treatment and learn ways to cope. What Is Dissociation? Symptoms of Dissociation in Anxiety The process of dissociation usually occurs outside your own awareness, though you may also realize it is happening, particularly if it is in the context of anxiety. The experience involves a disconnection between your memory, consciousness, identity, and thoughts. In other words, while normally your brain processes events (such as your memories, identity, perceptions, motor function, etc.) together, during dissociation, these parts splinter, leaving you with a feeling of disconnection. Dissociation is a general term that refers to a detachment from many things. Depersonalization With depersonalization, your mind feels disconnected from your thoughts, feelings, actions, or body. Examples of this include feeling like you are watching a movie about yourself or that you don't have an identity. Some of the symptoms experienced as a result of depersonalization include: Alterations in your perceptionsDistorted sense of timeEmotional or physical numbingFeelings of yourself being unreal or absent Derealization Derealization causes a sensation where the world does not feel real. Examples of this include seeing the world all in shades of grey or having tunnel vision when looking at the world. The symptoms involved with derealization include: Feeling like the world around you is not realFeeing the world as flat, dull, or greyHaving tunnel vision when you look at the world Depersonalization, Derealization, and Panic Disorder Diagnosis of Dissociation There are three types of dissociative disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). However, these are separate from dissociation related to anxiety: Depersonalization disorder: Characterized by ongoing feelings that you are detached from the world around you Dissociative amnesia: Characterized by trouble remembering events or having amnesia for events due to dissociation Dissociative identity disorder: Characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personalities and gaps in memory (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) Again, there is no diagnosis of "dissociation anxiety," although dissociation can be a symptom associated with anxiety disorders. The major anxiety disorders that may be related to dissociation as a symptom include: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Panic disorder Social anxiety disorder (SAD) Specific phobias Causes of Dissociation While the exact cause of dissociation is unclear, experts note that dissociation correlates with mood and anxiety disorders and is also a way of dealing with trauma. As a result, dissociation often affects people who have experienced the following types of trauma: AccidentsAssaultNatural disastersMilitary combatSexual or physical abuse When dissociation is related to anxiety or panic, it tends to occur for a shorter period of time than when it is due to trauma or abuse or as a symptom of a diagnosable dissociative disorder. In the case of anxiety, it is constant, low-level stress that puts a strain on your nervous system and eventually may cause you to dissociate to protect yourself; but remember, this all happens mostly at a level that you are likely not aware of. What to Know About Mood Disorders Treatment of Dissociation Although there is no specific treatment for dissociation, medications and psychotherapy have been shown to help. Medications While there are no medications to specifically treat dissociation, your doctor may prescribe antipsychotics, antidepressants, or anti-anxiety medications to alleviate some of the symptoms of a dissociative condition. Psychotherapy Treatment for dissociation related to anxiety usually will involve psychotherapy (such as cognitive behavioral therapy or dialectical behavior therapy). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is another therapy that is sometimes used. Since dissociation can interfere with the effectiveness of treatment, your therapist may ask you to do the following things to snap out of a period of dissociation: Make eye contactEat a piece of candy to snap into the momentGet up and walk around for a bitName five animals with letters that match the first five letters of the alphabetName five things you see, hear, and feelSmell a particular scent for grounding, such as lavenderExplain what happened if you look spaced out or recall what you were talking about when you spaced outRemember how using spacing out is an avoidance strategy Find Help With the Best Online Anxiety Support Groups Coping With Dissociation in Anxiety The key to managing dissociation related to anxiety is to practice grounding techniques to bring yourself back into the present moment. You can do this by always having a "grounding plan" that you put in place when you find yourself spacing out or otherwise feeling as though you are dissociating. While you may not be able to control dissociation, you can reduce the likelihood of it happening and also try to learn to ignore it when it does happen rather than letting your anxiety make it spiral out of control. In other words, the dissociation will stop when your brain no longer feels the need to protect you. Some preventative steps that you can take to manage dissociation related to anxiety include the following: Get enough sleep each nightGet regular exercise every dayPractice grounding techniques as noted in the treatment section abovePrevent anxiety from becoming overwhelmingReduce daily stress and triggers A Word From Verywell Are you concerned about dissociation anxiety? It could be that you actually have anxiety about your dissociation, rather than dissociation that is simply caused by anxiety. If you are finding yourself very worried about dissociation symptoms, such as feeling detached from the world or things not feeling real, it's important to speak to your doctor or a mental health professional about how you are feeling and what can be done to help you feel better. Only a professional can determine whether your symptoms are related to trauma or anxiety, or some combination of the two, which will influence your treatment plan. Finally, if you don't notice dissociation yourself, but others seem concerned about your behavior, it may still be worth seeking help. Dissociation is not always consciously recognized, so you may still be experiencing it. If you or a loved one are struggling with dissociation anxiety or another mental health issue, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. How to Find a Therapist for Anxiety 5 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Lyssenko L, Schmahl C, Bockhacker L, Vonderlin R, Bohus M, Kleindienst N. Dissociation in psychiatric disorders: A meta-analysis of studies using the dissociative experiences scale. Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175(1):37-46. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010025 National Alliance on Mental Illness. Dissociative Disorders. Gentile JP, Snyder M, Gillig P. Stress and trauma: Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for depersonalization/derealization disorder. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2014;11(7-8):37-41. Lanius RA. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: A call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2015;6. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v6.27905 Cleveland Clinic. Dissociative Disorders: Management and Treatment. Additional Reading Moscariello MM, Ratti F, Quartini A, Forcén FE, Munuera JN, Bersani G. Dissociative symptoms in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. Riv Psichiatr. 2010;45(4):234-243. doi:10.1016/s0924-977x(09)70749-7 National Alliance on Mental Illness. Dissociative disorders. Prasko J, Grambal A, Kasalova P, et al. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:2659-2676. doi:10.2147/ndt.s118058 University of Washington. What is dissociation and what to do about it? Warshaw MG, Fierman E, Pratt L, et al. Quality of life and dissociation in anxiety disorder patients with histories of trauma or PTSD. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(10):1512-1516. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.10.1512 By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety." See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist for GAD Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.