Brain Health Brain Food Does Drinking Coffee Actually Improve Memory? By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. Learn about our editorial process Updated on June 16, 2020 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, FAAN Medically reviewed by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, FAAN Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, is an award-winning physician-scientist and clinical development specialist. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Tara Moore/Getty Images Coffee drinkers often wonder if caffeine can improve their memory. That's because many who religiously consume the beverage notice that they seem more alert when they've had coffee. One coffee drinker, who described himself as "generally quite a forgetful person" swore that his memory improved after a cup of joe. But is there actually a link between the two, or is the connection just in the minds of coffee drinkers? Get the facts on the link between caffeine and memory with this review. How Caffeine Works Caffeine is a stimulant drug that affects the brain directly, and it has been shown without a doubt to increase alertness. However, the effects of caffeine on memory are more mixed. Some studies have shown that caffeine can improve some types of memory, particularly the global aspects of memory. More in-depth research shows that the benefit of caffeine on memory is state-dependent. This means that caffeine only improves memory if it is used both at the time of taking the information in and at the time of recalling the information later. If no caffeine is used at the time the information is presented, people perform more poorly if they take caffeine at the time they need to remember the information. On the other hand, if they've had caffeine when they take in the information, and they don't have caffeine when they try to remember it, they do worse than if they do have caffeine at the time they need to remember it. Other studies show that with certain memory tasks, caffeine actually worsens performance. These include poorer performance on tasks of free recall–remembering information without being prompted. People also recall more false memories when they are under the influence of caffeine, so it can have the effect of stimulating your brain to come up with memories inaccurately. 10 Ways to Improve Your Mental Performance Naturally Effects of Caffeine on the Memory of Older Adults There has been some encouraging research regarding the use of caffeine in older adults to counteract the natural declines in memory that are associated with age. For example, one study showed that caffeine reduced the afternoon decline in memory experienced by "morning people"–older adults who generally perform better in the morning than in the afternoon. However, other research indicates that caffeine is not a reliable way of improving memory in older people. In fact, research has shown that older people perform more poorly on tests of episodic memory after consuming caffeine-containing foods than those who do not. And although there is evidence that habitual caffeine use is associated with a modest advantage in long-term memory, this does not counter age-related memory declines. As caffeine is an addictive substance, trying to self-medicate what you believe to be a poor memory may actually be making matters worse. For example, caffeine tends to interfere with your sleep and is followed by a withdrawal period, both of which can cause memory problems. Talk to your doctor to find out whether you really have problems with your memory, other ways of improving your memory, and what an optimal amount of caffeine would be for you. Nootropics: These Popular Supplements Claim to Boost Cognitive Function, But How Legit Are They Really? 4 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Sherman SM, Buckley TP, Baena E, Ryan L. Caffeine Enhances Memory Performance in Young Adults during Their Non-optimal Time of Day. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1764. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01764 Kelemen WL, Creeley CE. State-dependent memory effects using caffeine and placebo do not extend to metamemory. J Gen Psychol. 2003;130(1):70-86. doi:10.1080/00221300309601276 Ryan L, Hatfield C, Hofstetter M. Caffeine reduces time-of-day effects on memory performance in older adults. Psychol Sci. 2002;13(1):68-71. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00412 Haskell-ramsay CF, Jackson PA, Forster JS, Dodd FL, Bowerbank SL, Kennedy DO. The Acute Effects of Caffeinated Black Coffee on Cognition and Mood in Healthy Young and Older Adults. Nutrients. 2018;10(10). doi:10.3390/nu10101386 Additional Reading Arnold, M. E., Petros, T. V., Beckwith, B. E., Coons, G., & Gorman, N. "The effects of caffeine, impulsivity, and sex on memory for word lists. Physiology & Behavior, 41:25–30. 1987. Capek, S., & Guenther, R. "Caffeine’s effects on true and false memory." Psychological Reports, 104, 787–795. 2009. Hameleers, P., Van Boxtel, M., Hogervorst, E., Riedel, W., Houx, P., Buntinx, F. & Jolles, J. "Habitual caffeine consumption and its relation to memory, attention, planning capacity and psychomotor performance across multiple age groups," Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 15:573-581. 2000. Kelemen, W. & Creeley, C. "State-dependent memory effects using caffeine and placebo do not extend to metamemory." J Gen Psychol 130:70-86. 2003. Lesk, V., Honey, T. & de Jager, C. "The effect of recent consumption of caffeine-containing foodstuffs on neuropsychological tests in the elderly," Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 27:322–328. 2009. Mahoney, C., Brunye, T., Giles, G., Lieberman, H., & Taylor, H. "Caffeine-induced physiological arousal accentuates global processing biases." Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 99, 59–65. 2011. Ryan, L., Hatfield, C. & Hofstetter, M. "Caffeine reduces time-of-day effects on memory performance in older adults," Psychol Sci 13:68-71. 2002. By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.