Depression Causes Depression With Drugs Are Your Medications Making You Depressed? By Nancy Schimelpfening Nancy Schimelpfening Nancy Schimelpfening, MS is the administrator for the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has a lifetime of experience with depression, experiencing firsthand how devastating this illness can be. Learn about our editorial process Updated on May 04, 2023 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Mei T. Liu, Pharm.D., BCPP Medically reviewed by Mei T. Liu, Pharm.D., BCPP Dr. Mei Liu is the Psychiatric Clinical Pharmacist at the Penn Medicine Princeton House Behavioral Health and is a Clinical Assistant Professor at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Guido Mieth / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Drugs That Can Cause Depression Signs of Depression What to Do Next Many people are not aware that certain prescription drugs have been associated with the emergence or worsening of depression symptoms as a side effect, even in people who might not ordinarily be prone to depression. A 2018 study published in JAMA found that more than a third of U.S. adults are taking a prescription medication that could potentially cause depression or increase suicide risk. Since depression is so common in patients with medical illnesses, it is often difficult to establish whether these medications are to blame for the mood symptoms. However, it is essential to be aware of these possible associations. This article discusses depression with drugs and the types of medications that are likely to cause symptoms. It also offers advice on what you can do to cope. Types of Medications Causing Depression While not a comprehensive list, the following are 10 common types of drugs that are associated with depression symptoms. You should consult with a doctor or pharmacist for information about your own specific medication regimen. Beta-Blockers Beta-blockers are generally prescribed in the treatment of high blood pressure, although they may also be used to treat migraines, angina, irregular heartbeat, and tremors. They may also be given as eye drops in the treatment of glaucoma. Examples of this type of drug include Toprol XL (metoprolol) and Inderal (propranolol). There is some debate about the degree to which these medications may cause depression, but they are commonly associated with depression symptoms such as sexual problems and fatigue. Corticosteroids These medications are often used to treat inflammatory conditions, such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and Sjögren's syndrome as well as other medical conditions. Corticosteroids can cause a variety of psychiatric symptoms. It is thought that among other effects, corticosteroids affect serotonin, a substance produced by the brain which is believed to be involved in mood regulation. Examples of this type of medication include cortisone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone. The Relationship Between Steroids and Bipolar Disorder Benzodiazepines These drugs are usually used to treat anxiety and insomnia or, when necessary, to cause the muscles to relax. In certain circumstances, these drugs may lead to depression symptoms. Benzodiazepines can also be habit-forming and may lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms when people try to stop taking them. Common examples of benzodiazepines include Xanax (alprazolam), Restoril (temazepam), and Valium (diazepam). Parkinson's Drugs Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease affect a substance in the brain called dopamine. Abnormalities in this neurotransmitter have been thought to be associated with depression. Scientists believe that when these drugs cause dopamine to become elevated for long periods of time, it may also affect a person's mood in certain patients. To further complicate this, there is a high incidence of depression in Parkinson's disease itself. The most commonly used medication in treating Parkinson's disease is levodopa. Other common medications that may be used include Sinemet (carbidopa/levodopa) and Lodosyn (carbidopa). Drugs That Affect Hormones These drugs include hormonal forms of birth control as well as estrogen replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms. Variations in hormone levels in women are often associated with depression symptoms, although it is not completely understood how this interaction occurs. Research suggests that progestin-only birth control is unlikely to cause symptoms of depression. The Relationship Between Estrogens and Depression Stimulants Stimulant medications may be prescribed to treat daytime sleepiness associated with conditions like narcolepsy, and they may also be used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Provigil (modafinil) are some examples of this type of medication. Although they have been used to augment antidepressants, there is also an association of mood worsening with their use in some patients. Stimulant medications can also produce dependence and withdrawal, which may lead to symptoms of depression, such as fatigue and sleep difficulties when people stop taking their medication. The Connection Between Adderall and Depression Anticonvulsants These drugs are used in the treatment of seizures, although they may also be used in treating other conditions, such as bipolar disorder and neuropathic pain. Because they affect the chemicals in the brain that are also believed to be responsible for regulating mood, they can sometimes cause depression. Some examples these types of medication associated with an increased risk for depression include Tegretol (carbamazepine), Topamax (topiramate), and Neurontin (gabapentin), and barbituates and Sabril (vigabatrin). Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) and H2 Blockers These medications are most commonly prescribed to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and have occasionally been associated with depression for reasons that aren't clear. Statins and Other Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs While statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs for lowering cholesterol, other drugs, such as fibrates, colesevelam, ezetimibe, and nicotinic acid can also be used for this purpose. There have been some reports linking these drugs with depression. It is thought that these drugs may cause depression by lowering the levels of cholesterol in the brain, where it serves many important functions. Anticholinergic Drugs Anticholinergic drugs influence a variety of functions in the body, including slowing down the action of the intestines. They are often used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with medications like Bentyl (dicyclomine). However, because they affect the central nervous system, they may have some association with depressive symptoms, particularly in older adults. Some case reports have indicated there may be an association between anticholinergic medications and mood disorders. However, some more recent research has not found such a link. However, research suggests that long-term use of such drugs may increase the risk of dementia. Other Drugs That Can Cause Depression Some other medications that may be linked to depressive side effects include:Acne medicationsPain relieversAllergy medicationsThyroid medicationsAntibiotics Signs of Depression The most noticeable symptom of depression is, of course, a feeling of sadness and low mood. Other than a depressed mood, however, there are other possible symptoms of depression that you might experience, like the following: Feelings of hopelessness or helplessnessFeelings of guilt or worthlessnessAnxietyIrritability and restlessnessFatigue and low energyProblems with sleepProblems with appetite or weightProblems with thinking, memory, and concentrationLoss of interest in things once enjoyedThoughts of death or suicide It can be helpful to write down details like when your symptoms first started and when they are the most severe. With many medications, you may start noticing such signs within the first few weeks after you begin a new drug. Because many medications that can cause depression are not prescribed to treat mental health conditions, people may not be adequately warned of this possible risk. It is also difficult to know what your individual reaction to a drug may be, or how it may interact with other medications that you are currently taking. For this reason, it is important to always fully inform your doctor about anything else you are taking, including any over-the-counter medications and herbal supplements. Always talk to your doctor if you experience any unusual side effects after taking a medication. What to Do Next If you believe that you may be experiencing symptoms of depression, whether they are related to a drug that you are taking or not, you should consult with your personal physician. Do not stop taking your medication without your doctor's permission. If you are experiencing severe depression or having thoughts of suicide, do not hesitate to seek immediate medical attention. Every situation is different, so your doctor will look at your health history and symptoms in order to determine what steps to take next. In some cases, it may involve switching to a different medication or adjusting your dosage. Your doctor will also try to determine if your depressive symptoms are linked to the new medication or some other cause. If there is an underlying depressive disorder, your doctor may recommend treatments such as antidepressants and psychotherapy. If you or a loved one are struggling with depression, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. The Best Online Resources for Depression 16 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Qato DM, Ozenberger K, Olfson M. 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Neurodegener Dis. 2015;15(3):175-181. doi:10.1159/000381525 Welk B, McArthur E. Are anticholinergic medications used for overactive bladder associated with new onset depression? A population-based matched cohort study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2020;29(12):1710-1714. doi:10.1002/pds.5147 Wouters H, Hilmer SN, Gnjidic D, et al. Long-term exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications and cognitive and physical function in later life. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A. Published online January 21, 2019:glz019. doi:10.1093/gerona/glz019 Lurie, I, Yang, YX, Haynes, K, Mamtani, R, and Boursi, B. Antibiotic exposure and the risk for depression, anxiety, or psychosis: A nested case-control study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015;76(11):1522-1528. doi:10.4088/JCP.15m09961 American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed, text revision. Washington, D.C.; 2022. Additional Reading Qato DM, Ozenberger K, Olfson M. Prevalence of prescription medications with depression as a potential adverse effect among adults in the United States. JAMA. 2018;319(22):2289-2298. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.6741 By Nancy Schimelpfening Nancy Schimelpfening, MS is the administrator for the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has a lifetime of experience with depression, experiencing firsthand how devastating this illness can be. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist for Depression Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.