Phobias Treatment Advantages and Disadvantages of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial process Updated on January 17, 2023 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Steven Gans, MD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print F.Rdec / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 3.0 Table of Contents View All Table of Contents History of the DSM Clinical Uses Advantages Disadvantages Criticisms Ensuring Proper Diagnosis Currently in its fifth edition (DSM-5-TR), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is sometimes referred to as psychiatry's bible. Within its covers are specific diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, as well as a series of codes that allow therapists to easily summarize often complex conditions for clinical research and insurance purposes. This method offers a number of advantages, such as standardization of diagnoses across different treatment providers. But increasingly, mental health professionals are considering the drawbacks of the DSM, including the possibility of over-diagnosis. In order to understand the debate, it is first necessary to understand what the DSM is and is not. History of the DSM Although its roots are traceable to the late 19th century, the standardization of mental illness classifications really took hold in the years immediately following World War II. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (then known as the Veterans Administration, or VA) needed a way to diagnose and treat returning service members who had a wide range of mental health difficulties. In 1949, the World Health Organization released its sixth edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), which for the first time included mental illnesses. Although this work represented some of the earliest standards for mental health diagnosis, it was far from complete. DSM-I and DSM-II In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the DSM-I, an adaptation of a classification system developed by the armed forces during WW2. It was designed for use by doctors and other treatment providers. The DSM-I was the first of its kind, but experts agreed that it still needed work. The DSM-II, released in 1968, attempted to incorporate the psychiatric knowledge of the day. It was heavily influenced by psychoanalytic concepts that were prominent at that time. DSM-III Published in 1980, DSM-III represented a radical change in the DSM structure. Its goal was to improve the validity and standardization of psychiatric diagnoses. It was the first version to introduce such elements as the multi-axis system and explicit diagnostic criteria. It also removed much of the earlier versions' bias toward psychodynamic, or Freudian, thought in favor of a more descriptive and categorical approach. Although the DSM-III was a pioneering work, real-world usage soon revealed its flaws and limitations. Confusing diagnostic criteria and inconsistencies led the APA to develop a revision. Some of these changes were based on changing societal norms. For example, in the DSM-III, homosexuality was diagnosed as ego-dystonic homosexuality. In the revision, this specific classification was removed. By the late 1980s, however, homosexuality was no longer seen as a disorder, although anxiety and distress about sexual orientation were. The DSM-III-R, released in 1987, fixed many of the internal difficulties of the earlier work. DSM-IV and DSM-5 Published in 1994, the DSM-IV reflected numerous changes in the understanding of mental health disorders. Some diagnoses were added, others subtracted or reclassified. In addition, the diagnostic system was further refined in an effort to make it more user-friendly. The DSM-5, published in May 2013, represented another radical shift in thinking in the mental health community. Diagnoses have been changed, removed or added, and the organizational structure underwent a major reworking. Previous editions went decades between revisions. The DSM-5 is expected to be revised more regularly with mini additions (such as the DSM-5.1, DSM-5.2, etc.) in an effort to be more responsive to research. DSM-5-TR The most recent edition of the DSM is the DSM, fifth edition, text revision, known as the DSM-5-TR. The American Psychiatric Association published this update in 2022. This version of the manual includes text revisions intended to add clarity, use more precise language, and minimize reader confusion. Notable changes include: Significant updates regarding the language used to describe gender dysphoria Updates for the wording of autism spectrum disorder for criterion A Language changes to reduce racial and cultural biases Descriptions of how symptoms can manifest differently in people of different demographic backgrounds New codes for non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior Revised diagnostic criteria for 70 disorders Added a new diagnosis for prolonged grief disorder More About the DSM-5 Clinical Uses of the DSM Every mental health professional uses the DSM in his or her own way. Main clinical uses for the DSM include: A diagnostic and treatment blueprint: Some practitioners rigidly stick to the manual, developing treatment plans for each client based solely on the book's diagnoses. A guideline: Others use the DSM as a guideline—a tool to help them conceptualize cases while focusing on each client's unique set of circumstances. Billing purposes: In the modern world, virtually every mental health professional must refer to the DSM's codes to bill treatment to insurance companies. Advantages of the DSM Despite its flaws, the DSM is uniquely helpful for several reasons. Standardization Beyond billing and coding, standardization provides a number of important benefits to the clinician and the client. Standardization of diagnoses helps ensure that clients receive appropriate, helpful treatment regardless of location, social class, or ability to pay. It provides a concrete assessment of issues and helps therapists develop specific goals of therapy, as well as assess the effectiveness of treatment. Research Guidance In addition, the DSM helps guide research in the mental health field. The diagnostic checklists help ensure that different groups of researchers are studying the same disorder—although this may be more theoretical than practical, as so many disorders have such widely varying symptoms. Therapeutic Guidance For the mental health professional, the DSM eliminates a lot of guesswork. Proper diagnosis and treatment of mental illness remains an art, but the DSM diagnostic criteria serve as a sort of map. In the age of brief therapy, a clinician may see a specific client only a handful of times, which may not be long enough to delve fully into the client's background and issues. Using the diagnostic criteria contained in the DSM, the therapist can develop a quick frame of reference, which is then refined during individual sessions. Advantages Standardizes billing and coding Standardizes diagnoses and treatment Guides research Guides treatment Disadvantages Oversimplifies human behavior Increases risk of misdiagnosis or over-diagnosis Provides labels, which can be stigmatizing Disadvantages of the DSM No tool is perfect, and the DSM is no exception. Being aware of its drawbacks is important for both patients and therapists. Oversimplification The latest round of criticism echoes a long-running debate on the nature of mental health. Many critics of the DSM see it as an oversimplification of the vast continuum of human behavior. Some worry that by reducing complex problems to labels and numbers, the scientific community risks losing track of the unique human element. Misdiagnoses and Over-Diagnoses Possible risks include misdiagnosis or even over-diagnosis, in which vast groups of people are labeled as having a disorder simply because their behavior does not always line up with the current ideal. Childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common example. Shifts in terminology and diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV coincided with a massive upturn in the number of children on Ritalin or other medications. Labeling and Stigmatization Other risks involve the possibility of stigmatization. Although mental health disorders are not viewed in the negative light that they once were, specific disorders can be perceived as labels. Some therapists take great care to avoid attaching labels to their clients. But for a variety of reasons, a specific diagnosis may be required. Criticisms of the DSM The DSM is not without criticism. Such critiques often center on the oversimplification of mental health, the potential for misdiagnosis, and the risks of labeling and stigma. Other critics have suggested that the pharmaceutical industry has had too much influence on revisions to the manual. Critics note that 69% of DSM-5 task force members had direct ties to the pharmaceutical industry. This suggests that the manual may overly medicalize conditions, implying that even relatively normal or non-serious behavior and mood patterns require treatment, often in the form of medication. What You Can Do to Ensure Proper Diagnosis Despite the concerns of some segments of the mental health community, the DSM remains the standard for diagnosis of mental health conditions. Like any other professional manual, however, the DSM is designed to be used as one of many tools for proper diagnosis and treatment. Professional Judgment Is Essential There is no substitute for professional judgment on the part of a mental health provider. It is important to interview potential clinicians as you would any other service provider. Ask questions about their background and therapeutic approach, and choose the one whose style best melds with your personality and goals for treatment. In recent years, some mental health associations have published supplemental handbooks that attempt to address some of the DSM's drawbacks with more specific diagnostic criteria relevant to the association's school of thought. For example, five associations teamed up to create the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, or PDM, in 2006. That particular handbook is geared toward mental health clinicians who incorporate a psychodynamic or psychoanalytic perspective in their work with patients. This approach aims to describe dimensions of a patient's overall personality and emotional functioning and ways this might influence the therapeutic process. A Word From Verywell If you have any concerns about your diagnosis, ask your clinician for more information. Finding the right therapist or mental health professional can be challenging, but the rewards are well worth the trouble. What Are the ICD-10 Criteria for Depression? 11 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5). American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Wilson M. DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: A history. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(3):399-410. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.3.399 World Health Organization. ICD-10 online versions. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed, text revision. Washington, D.C.; 2022. Clarke DE, Kuhl EA. DSM-5 cross-cutting symptom measures: A step towards the future of psychiatric care. World Psychiatry. 2014;13(3):314-316. doi:10.1002/wps.20154 Möller HJ. The consequences of DSM-5 for psychiatric diagnosis and psychopharmacotherapy. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2014;18(2):78-85. doi:10.3109/13651501.2014.890228 Nemeroff CB, Weinberger D, Rutter M, et al. DSM-5: a collection of psychiatrist views on the changes, controversies, and future directions. BMC Med. 2013;11:202. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-202 Bolton D. Overdiagnosis problems in the DSM-IV and the new DSM-5: Can they be resolved by the distress-impairment criterion?. Can J Psych. 2013;58(11):612-617. doi:10.1177/070674371305801106 Young G. Dsm-5: basics and critics. In: Unifying Causality and Psychology. Springer International Publishing; 2016:565-590. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24094-7_22 Cosgrove L, Krimsky S. A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 panel members' financial associations with industry: a pernicious problem persists. PLoS Med. 2012;9(3):e1001190. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001190 Lingiardi V, McWilliams N. The pscyhodynamic diagnostic manual - 2nd edition (PDM-2). World Psychiatry. 2015;14(2):237-239. doi:10.1002/wps.20233 Additional Reading American Psychiatric Association. Development of DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association. DSM history. By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. 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