Addiction Drug Use Marijuana What to Know About Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed) Use By Buddy T Buddy T Facebook Twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial process Updated on July 12, 2021 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Steven Gans, MD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Spencer Platt / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents What Does Fake Weed Do? Common Side Effects Signs of Use Common Questions Addiction and Withdrawal How to Get Help Synthetic cannabinoids, also called synthetic marijuana or fake weed, have been used by many as an alternative to marijuana since products were first introduced in 2002. Despite the fact that these man-made products were created in laboratories to help scientists study the cannabinoid system in the human brain, they often claim to be made of “natural” material from a variety of plants. Hundreds of synthetic cannabinoids exist and the effects can be unpredictable and even life-threatening. Also Known As: There are countless fake weed products being sold as herbal smoking blends, legal bud, herbal smoke, marijuana alternatives, fake weed, or herbal buds. This makes it difficult for parents and other adults to identify them. Some of the brand names include Blaze, Blueberry Haze, Dank, Demon Passion Smoke, Genie, Hawaiian Hybrid, K2, Magma, Ninja, Nitro, Ono Budz, Panama Red Ball, Puff, Sativah Herbal Smoke, Skunk, Spice, Ultra Chronic, and Voodoo Spice. Drug Class: Synthetic marijuana products are classified as new psychoactive substances (NPS), or unregulated mind-altering substances intended to produce the same effects as illegal drugs. Common Side Effects: Side effects of the drug include elevated mood, relaxation, altered perception, symptoms of psychosis, extreme anxiety, confusion, paranoia, hallucinations, violent behavior, suicidal thoughts, rapid heart rate, raised blood pressure, vomiting, kidney damage, and seizures. How to Recognize Fake Weed Synthetic marijuana often contains a mixture of dried leaves from traditional herbal plants. They are various colors, including green, brown, blonde, and red, and often sold in small packets approximately two by three inches. The packets are often colorful foil packs or plastic zip bags. Some online sellers of legal fake weed products do so with disclaimers like "not for human consumption." What Does Synthetic Marijuana Do? Fake weed works on the same brain cell receptors as THC or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana that gets you high). It is typically smoked, brewed in tea, or vaped. Many of these products are legally marketed as "herbal incense" or "potpourri." Some people who use herbal buds say that it produces a high similar to that of marijuana, but it doesn't last as long. Others experience a relaxed feeling, rather than the "head high" that real marijuana produces. Also of note is the "harsh" taste, which people say "makes your throat burn and your lungs ache" long after you smoke. Since there are no standards for making, packaging, or selling synthetic weed, it's impossible to know the type and amount of chemicals in each product as well as what the fake weed will do to you. What the Experts Say Although they are often marketed as "100% organic herbs," none of the fake weed products on the market are completely natural. They have all been found to contain various synthetic cannabinoids, or chemicals produced in laboratories. Originally, fake marijuana products contained a chemical called HU-210, which has a molecular structure very similar to THC. Because HU-210 is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, these fake weed products were manufactured and sold only in Europe. Since then, new synthetic cannabinoid agonists have been created. They are too numerous to list. Some are similar in structure to THC; others are not. Some are classified as controlled substances. By using different synthetic marijuana mixtures, manufacturers are able to continue to legally market their products in the United States when another formulation becomes illegal. According to the DEA, the majority of these chemical compounds are produced in Asia with no regulations or standards. They are then smuggled into the United States where they are sprinkled onto "plant material," packaged and ultimately sold in tobacco shops, convenience stores, and the like. Some of these chemicals are still legal. However, since synthetic marijuana first hit the market, more than 20 of these compounds have become controlled in some way at the federal level. At the same time, they noted that more than 75 additional compounds have been identified but are not currently controlled. In 2015, the DEA listed 15 varieties of synthetic marijuana as Schedule I controlled substances in the Drugs of Abuse resource guide. This places them in the same federal category as heroin, crack cocaine, and marijuana. Many people buy into the idea that fake marijuana products are safe since the chemicals are "legal" and contain "natural" ingredients. However, this has proven to be false with multiple cases of severe, unexplained bleeding or bruising, and some deaths. Other reports show an increase in emergency room visits due to rapid heart rate, vomiting, violent behavior, suicidal thoughts, kidney damage, and seizures. Off-Label Uses Some of the fake marijuana products sold commercially claim to contain herbs traditionally used for medicinal purposes, including: Beach bean (Canavalia maritima)Blue Egyptian water lily (Nymphaea caerulea)Dwarf skullcap (Scutellaria nana)Indian warrior (Pedicularis densiflora)Lion's tail (Leonotis leonurus)Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)Honeyweed (Leonurus sibiricus) However, one study revealed that some of the herbal ingredients listed by the manufacturers could not be found in the products. Beyond the synthetic cannibinoid HU-210, which is used by scientists to identify cannibinoid receptors in the brain and study the effects delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), there are no approved or off-label medical uses for synthetic marijuana. Common Side Effects While research is advancing, the effect synthetic marijuana products may have on the human body is largely unknown. To date, few studies have been published testing the effects of the chemicals. Within the DEA report, it's noted that overdoses have caused fatal heart attacks. Similarly, acute kidney injury resulting in hospitalization and dialysis have been connected to these synthetics. One study compared the level of impairment for drivers who were arrested for intoxicated driving. One group had smoked synthetic cannabinoids and those in the other group had used marijuana. The study found a significant increase in confusion, disorientation, and incoherence in the synthetic marijuana group. Slurred speech, a side effect not normally associated with natural cannabis use, was also reported among the people who had taken synthetic cannabinoids. Beyond the short-term effects mentioned, an increase in blood pressure, as well as seizures, tremors, and anxiety, have been noted in people who have used synthetic marijuana. Whether these observed symptoms will have lasting effects, particularly on adolescents and young adults, is not yet known. Of course, smoking any substance could have negative effects on the lungs. "The problem with JWH-018 (a synthetic cannabinoid compound) is that absolutely nothing is known regarding its toxicity or metabolites," says John Huffman, who helped develop the JWH-018 chemical. "Therefore, it is potentially dangerous and should not be used." JWH-018 is also known as 1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthyl) indole and is one of the Schedule I controlled substances listed with the DEA. There were also cases in which a version of synthetic marijuana was laced with rat poison, causing uncontrolled bleeding in hundreds of people and killing several others who ingested the tainted products. If you or a loved one has used synthetic marijuana and begin experiencing severe, unexplained bleeding or bruising, call 911 or asked a loved one to take you to the hospital immediately. These are all signs of contaminated cannabinoid products. Signs of Use If you are a parent of a young adult, it pays to know the behaviors and physical effects of using fake weed. While exhibiting one or two of these signs might not mean that your child is using, they are all strong indicators of drug use and should be taken seriously. Behaviors: Burning incenseBuying or using eye dropsPossessing dried plants or herbsHaving rolling papers or vape pensReceiving suspicious packages in the mailDisplaying unusual or secretive behaviors Physical effects: RestlessnessRed or irritated eyesPale complexionActing confused Drug Testing and Drug Screening for Teens Common Questions Contrary to common belief, herbal bud is not "natural marijuana." It is created from any of several hundred man-made synthetic chemicals that are sprayed onto the chopped plant material. Synthetic marijuana is also far more potent, containing THC analogs or synthetic cannabinoids that can be up to 600 times more potent than THC found in marijuana. Often, additives, toxic impurities, and other types of drugs are also found in fake weed products. Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawal Regularly using “fake weed” can result in increased tolerance, or needing more and more of the drug to experience the same high. If you regularly use synthetic cannabinoids, you can also become both physically and psychologically dependent. This means if you stop abruptly, you'll likely experience withdrawal symptoms. Since the chemical composition of fake weed is unknown and can change from batch to batch, tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal may also vary. How Long Does Fake Weed Stay in Your System? How long synthetic cannabinoids stay in your system depends on several factors, including the type, how it is administered (i.e., inhaled or ingested), amount consumed, and frequency of use. Since these synthetic drugs don't trigger a positive result on most standard urine drug tests, many people turn to these drugs in an attempt to avoid positive drug screens for employment, rehab, or legal reasons. Addiction Long-term, regular use of synthetic cannabinoids can lead to addiction. If you have a history of mental illness or a substance use disorder, the risk of addiction is even greater. In addition to building up a tolerance and experiencing symptoms of withdrawal, other signs of synthetic cannabinoid addiction can include: You use more than intended, even after telling yourself that you’ll only “take a few hits.”You are unable to cut down or stop and have likely failed numerous times at quitting.You spend lots of time getting high, often at the expense of spending time with loved ones or doing activities you once enjoyed.You continue to use despite any problems with family and friends, employment, or legal troubles.You depend on the drug to “relax” or for creativity. Signs and Symptoms of Addiction Withdrawal Symptoms of synthetic weed withdrawal can range from mild to severe, depending on how frequent and how long you have been using, and include the following: HeadacheSevere anxietyDepressionIrritability How to Get Help If you suspect that someone you love is using synthetic marijuana, the most important thing you can do is spend time with them, communicate the dangers of fake weed, and watch for any signs of use. While behavioral therapies and medications have yet to be specifically tested for the treatment of synthetic cannabinoid addiction, a healthcare professional can work with you and your loved one to safely detox from the drug as well as identify and treat any co-occurring mental illness. If you or a loved one are struggling with substance use or addiction, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. 11 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. National Institutes of Health. Synthetic cannabinoids (K2/Spice). Drug Enforcement Agency. Spice/K2 Synthetic Marijuana. US Senate. Statement of Joseph T. Rannazzisi Deputy Assistant Administrator Office of Diversion Control Drug Enforcement Administration before the Caucus on International Narcotics Control United States Senate for a hearing entitled “Dangerous Synthetic Drugs”. September 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Synthetic cannabinoids: what are they? What are their effects?. Ries RK, Fiellen DA, et al. The ASAM Principles of Addiction Medicine Fifth Edition. LWW. 2020. US Drug Enforcement Agency. Drugs of abuse. 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Journal Psychopharmacology. 2015;29(6):698-703. doi: 10.1177/0269881115574493. By Buddy T Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Get Treatment for Addiction Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.