How a Phrenology Head Was Traditionally Used

Phrenology head
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Phrenology heads or busts were used by phrenologists to perform "skull readings" that supposedly revealed information about a person's character and tendencies.

A Brief History of Phrenology

During the late 1700s, a physician named Franz Gall proposed that the bumps on a person's head could be linked to their intellectual faculties and personality. While this is now viewed entirely as pseudoscience, phrenology actually became quite popular for a time.

In an edition of Webster's Dictionary dated circa 1900, phrenology was defined as:

  • Science of the special functions of the several parts of the brain, or of the supposed connection between the faculties of the mind and the organs in the brain
  • Physiological hypothesis that mental faculties and traits of character are shown on the surface of the head or skull; craniology

Regions of the Phrenology Head

The phrenology head seen above shows a number of different regions of the brain linked to different personality characteristics.

Gall himself only recognized 27 faculties. Yet in most classic examples of phrenology busts, there were 35 different regions of the head, which were linked to the faculties listed below:

  1. Amativeness
  2. Philoprogenitiveness
  3. Inhabitiveness
  4. Adhesiveness
  5. Combativeness
  6. Destructiveness
  7. Secretiveness
  8. Acquisitiveness
  9. Constructiveness
  10. Self-esteem
  11. Love of Approbation
  12. Cautiousness
  13. Benevolence
  14. Reverence
  15. Firmness
  16. Conscientiousness
  17. Hope
  18. Marvelousness
  19. Ideality
  20. Mirthfulness
  21. Imitation
  22. Individuality
  23. Configuration
  24. Size
  25. Weight
  26. Coloring
  27. Locality
  28. Calculation
  29. Order
  30. Eventuality
  31. Time
  32. Tune
  33. Language
  34. Comparison
  35. Causality

How a Phrenology Reading Traditionally Worked

During a skull reading, a phrenologist would carefully feel the individual's head and make note of bumps and indentations. The phrenologist would compare these findings to that of a phrenology bust in order to determine what the surface of the skull had to say about the individual's natural aptitudes, character, and tendencies.

Obviously, while phrenology heads and charts can be a fun and interesting way to look at a curious chapter in psychology's history, they are not something to be taken seriously.

Scientists discredited phrenology by the mid-1800s, although phrenology readings continued to have moments of popularity during the late 1800s and early 1900s. While phrenology was eventually shown to be pseudoscience, the idea that certain abilities might be linked to specific areas of the brain did have an influence on the field of neurology and the study of the localization of brain functions.

Today, phrenology is regarded as a pseudoscience along the same lines as palm reading and astrology.

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