Differences in Suicide Among Men and Women

Gender Differences in Suicide

Ismail Akin Bostanci / Getty Images

Information presented in this article may be triggering to some people. If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911.

For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database.

Official statistics and research studies have found that there are a number of gender differences in suicide. These differences are known as the gender paradox of suicide. While women are more likely to experience suicidal thoughts, for example, men are much more likely to take their own lives.

Complicating the issue is the fact that much of the research on this topic doesn't include nonbinary people. Understanding these gender differences can help experts better design and develop prevention and intervention strategies.

While it is difficult to discuss this topic, it has to be stressed that this knowledge is important if we are to reduce the number of deaths by suicide in the United States and around the world each year.

The World Health Organization reports that 800,000 people die by suicide each year worldwide, while suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States.

Suicide Attempt and Risk of Death

Suicide statistics reveal that women are roughly three times more likely to attempt suicide, though men are two to four times more likely to die by suicide. Compared to men, women show higher rates of suicidal thinking, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide attempts.

The differences in attempts and completed suicides in women have erroneously led many people to believe that suicide attempts in women are often a method of getting attention rather than a serious risk. This is far from true.

It's important to note that among women, an attempted (but failed) suicide attempt is the greatest risk factor for suicide in the future, and all suicide attempts, whether in men or women, need to be taken very seriously.

Suicide Methods

One of the most important reasons for the difference between suicide attempts and completed suicides between men and women is the method of suicide used.

Men tend to choose violent (more lethal) suicide methods, such as firearms, hanging, and asphyxiation, whereas women are more likely to overdose on medications or drugs.

Suicide Methods in Men
  • Firearms

  • Hanging

  • Asphyxiation or suffocation

  • Jumping

  • Moving objects

  • Sharp objects

  • Vehicle exhaust gas

Suicide Methods in Women
  • Self-poisoning

  • Exsanguination (bleeding out from a cut such as a "slit" wrist)

  • Drowning

  • Hanging

  • Firearms

There are also differences in suicide methods beyond those between these two genders. For example, one study found that:

  • Men who were married were more likely to use firearms, whereas men who were unmarried were more likely to die by hanging.
  • Unmarried women were less likely to hang themselves than married women.
  • Men with a history of substance use were more likely to die by self-poisoning, whereas prior substance use had no impact on self-poisoning as a suicide method among women.
  • For both men and women, the likelihood of poisoning was significantly higher among those taking psychiatric medications.
  • Methods such as intentional overdose are more common in those who have been depressed for some time.
  • Firearms appear to be more common when people are reacting to acute situations. This would support current recommendations to remove guns from a home in the setting of an acute mental health crisis.

Severity of Suicide Attempts

Even when the same method of suicide is used by men and women, attempts by men tend to be more serious and severe (60% more severe, at least statistically speaking). Men who attempt suicide and survive are more likely than women who attempt and survive suicide to require intensive care hospitalization.

With regard to suicide by firearms, research has found that men are more likely to shoot themselves in the head (which is more likely to be fatal) than women. The reason for this has been debated but could be related to less intent to die in women. Some have suggested that this could be, however, that cosmetic fears in women, should the attempt fail, play a role in the location of a gunshot.

Researchers have explored the possibility that suicidal intent may play a role in this discrepancy. One study found that women tend to exhibit less serious intent to die than do men.

Prior Suicide Attempts

As noted above, both men and women who have a history of a prior suicide attempt are at high risk for future suicide. Over half of women who die by suicide have a previous attempt, whereas less than half of men who commit suicide have a prior attempt.

Suicide Warning Signs

Regardless of gender differences in suicide, everyone should be aware of the risk factors and warning signs of suicide. If you or a loved one have a history of depression, you may wish to create a suicide safety plan as well.

Self-Harming Behavior

While men are more likely to die as a result of a suicide attempt, women are more likely to engage in what is known as deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injury. DSH involves any sort of self-harming behavior, whether or not the intent is to commit suicide.

Research suggests that people who use self-injury are not usually trying to kill themselves, though sometimes they do. While many people associate self-harm with a desire for attention, it is not and is often done in private. Examples of DSH include non-lethal drug overdoses and self-injury such as cutting.

While suicide may not be the motivation, many people who engage in self-harm may be having suicidal thoughts and may also go too far in their self-harming behavior resulting in unintentional suicide.

Research has found some key risk factors for suicide in those who engage in self-harming behavior including:

  • Being a man
  • Physical health problems
  • Previous episodes of self-harm
  • Suicidal intent

Depression and Suicide

It's thought that major depression occurs in roughly half of people who commit suicide, both men and women, and there are differences in this regard as well.

Women are twice as likely as men to carry a diagnosis of major depression, though, as noted, completed suicide occurs much more often in men than women. It's also known that women are more likely to seek treatment for depression than men.

LGBTQ Suicide Rates

Research has found that suicidal thoughts and rates are much higher among those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and non-binary

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are three times more likely to think about suicide and seven times more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexual youth. 

The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey found:

  • 40% of transgender adults have attempted suicide.
  • 50% of trans males reported a suicide attempt in the past year.
  • 42% of nonbinary teens reported some type of self-harm in the previous year.
  • Less than 10% of cisgender males and 17% of cisgender females (those whose gender identity matches the gender that is most often correlated with their biological sex) reported suicidal behaviors.

Rejection and bullying have both been implicated in the increased suicide rates among the LGBTQ community. Research has shown that young people who are rejected by their families due to their identity or sexual orientation are 8.4 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who have more family support and acceptance.

A study published in the American Journal of Public Health found that every incident of LGBTQ harassment or abuse, both verbal and physical, more than doubles the risk of self-harming behaviors.

Research suggests that taking steps to facilitate friendships between LGBTQ and heterosexual students may help reduce these rates. A study conducted by researchers from the University of British Columbia found that simply having a gay-straight alliance (GSA) at school reduced suicidal thoughts and attempts among all students, regardless of their sexual orientation.

The researchers suggest having a long-standing GSA reduces homophobic bullying and improves student mental health no matter their sexual orientation.

Why There Are Gender Differences in Suicide

A number of different theories have been suggested to account for the gender differences in suicide, including differences in gender roles and societal expectations:

  • The gender stereotype of men being "tough" and "strong" does not allow for failure, perhaps causing men to select a more violent and lethal method of suicide.
  • Women, who are allowed (in social acceptance terms) the option to express vulnerability and to ask for help, may use suicide attempts as a means of expressing their need for help.
  • Women may be more reluctant to engage in a serious suicide attempt because the act is seen as violent and "masculine."
  • Women may be more likely to attempt suicide at an earlier point when faced with psychological distress or illness than men, less out of an intent to die and more out of an attempt to communicate distress.
  • Women may be more likely to take others into consideration, and looking at suicide in the context of relationships may give women less incentive to want to die.
  • Women may feel freer to change their minds following a decision to attempt suicide.

Experts suggest that gender might also influence what methods a person is familiar with or has ready access to use. For example, men are generally more likely than women to be familiar with firearms and use them in their daily lives, and thus they might choose this method more often.

For Parents and Loved Ones

If you are a parent, you may have lost sleep learning about the risk of suicide in young people. Despite prevention and intervention programs aimed to help teens who are considering suicide, determining if a teenager is suicidal can be very difficult.

In addition to learning about the warning signs of suicide in adults, take a moment to learn about the warning signs for suicide in teenagers, and become familiar with some of the common myths about teen suicide.

The Trevor Project offers help and resources for LGBTQ youth and can be reached at 1-866-488-7386. Call 911 if you or another person is in immediate danger.

A Word From Verywell

While certain generalizations can be made about gender differences in suicide behavior, it should be noted that general tendencies cannot be taken as absolute guidelines for suicide prevention efforts.

Suicide attempts should always be taken seriously and not dismissed as attention-seeking behavior, nor should it be assumed that only people of a particular gender will use any given method.

It is important to note that more research is needed to better understand gender differences in suicide and to develop gender-targeted intervention strategies.

13 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Featured Topic: World Health Organization's (WHO) Report on Preventing Suicide. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  2. Vijayakumar L. Suicide in women. Indian J Psychiatry. 2015;57(Suppl 2):S233-8. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.161484

  3. Crosby AE, Han B, Ortega LAG, Parks SE, Gfroerer J. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adults aged ≥18 years: United States, 2008-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011:60(SS13);1-22.

  4. Callanan VJ, Davis MS. Gender differences in suicide methods. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(6):857-69. doi:10.1007/s00127-011-0393-5

  5. Callanan VJ, Davis MS. Gender and suicide method: Do women avoid facial disfiguration? Sex Roles. 2011;65(11):867-879. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0043-0

  6. Freeman A, Mergl R, Kohls E, et al. A cross-national study on gender differences in suicide intent. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):234. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1398-8

  7. Chan MK, Bhatti H, Meader N, et al. Predicting suicide following self-harm: Systematic review of risk factors and risk scales. Br J Psychiatry. 2016;209(4):277-283. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.115.170050

  8. Increased Risk Groups. Youth.gov.

  9. James SE, Herman JL, Rankin S, Keisling M, Mottet L, Anafi, M. The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality.

  10. Ryan C, Huebner D, Diaz RM, Sanchez JFamily rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):346-52. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3524

  11. Mustanski BS, Garofalo R, Emerson EM. Mental health disorders, psychological distress, and suicidality in a diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(12):2426-32. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.178319

  12. Saewyc EM, Konishi C, Rose HA, Homma Y. School-based strategies to reduce suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and discrimination among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents in western Canada. Int J Child Youth Family Stud. 2014;5(1):89-112. doi:10.18357/ijcyfs.saewyce.512014

  13. Sudhir Kumar CT, Mohan R, Ranjith G, Chandrasekaran R. Gender differences in medically serious suicide attempts: A study from south India. Psychiatry Res. 2006;144(1):79-86. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2005.11.012

Additional Reading

By Nancy Schimelpfening
Nancy Schimelpfening, MS is the administrator for the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has a lifetime of experience with depression, experiencing firsthand how devastating this illness can be.