Compulsive Hoarding Treatment


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Compulsive hoarding is more than really having lots of things. It's a specific type of behavior that can have a severe impact on a person's life. Although hoarding treatment is often very difficult to undertake, new types of cognitive-behavior therapy offer hope. Let's explore more about hoarding treatment.

What Is Compulsive Hoarding?

Compulsive or pathological hoarding is a problematic behavior characterized by:

  • Acquiring and failing to throw out a large number of items that would appear to have little or no value to others, such as old magazines, containers, clothes, books, junk mail, receipts, notes, or lists
  • Severe cluttering of the person’s home so that the home is no longer able to function as a viable living space
  • Significant distress or impairment in work or social life

Treatments for Hoarding

Hoarding, either alone or in the presence of OCD, usually does not respond well to medical or psychological treatments.

A number of studies have examined the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as Paxil (paroxetine), in the treatment of hoarding. Most investigations have found that only a third of patients who hoard show an adequate response to these medications. Results have been similar for other drugs affecting serotonin, such as the tricyclic antidepressant Anafranil (clomipramine).

Efforts at treating hoarding with traditional cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) are also often ineffective. Dr. Randy Frost is credited with establishing compulsive hoarding as a problematic behavior in the psychological literature in the early 1990s.

Subsequently Frost worked with Dr. Gail Steketee to develop a CBT protocol designed specifically for hoarding. In addition to imparting information on the nature and consequences of hoarding, this hoarding CBT protocol focuses on four specific elements:

  • Information Processing: People who hoard have trouble with organization, categorization, and making decisions regarding whether to keep possessions or not. As such, treatment focuses on skills in sorting, organizing, and decision-making.
  • Emotional Attachment to Possessions: It is not uncommon for people to hoard to report an intense sentimental attachment to objects. This attachment, of course, can make it difficult to discard objects that otherwise have little to no value. Therapy using techniques such as cognitive restructuring and exposure are used to challenge beliefs around these objects and explores the true consequences of discarding such objects.
  • Beliefs About Possessions: Hoarding often involves an intense belief that control must be maintained over possessions and that there is a responsibility to ensure that possessions do not go to waste. Again, treatment focuses on cognitive restructuring and exposure to critically examine beliefs around possessions.
  • Behavioral Avoidance: Although hoarding can destroy a person’s home and relationships, this behavior does have the advantage of allowing the person to avoid making decisions, making mistakes, interacting with others, and facing the unpleasant task of organizing one’s possessions. This CBT protocol focuses on creating behavioral experiments that allow the person to face situations that generate anxiety while at the same time replacing avoidance with more adaptive coping strategies.

Research into combining this protocol of treatment with different combinations of medication is ongoing.

Barriers to Hoarding Treatment

Insight into the severity of symptoms and the necessity for change is essential to the success of almost any form of treatment. When people do not have insight into their illness, they are much more likely to either stop taking medication or to drop out of treatment.

Research has shown that people who hoard often have worse insight into their symptoms than people with OCD who do not hoard. This lack of insight often causes people to avoid seeking treatment, withdraw early from treatment, or fail to complete homework assignments.

Often people who hoard only agree to enter treatment after being threatened with eviction or some other negative consequence secondary to the consequences caused by their hoarding. In these cases, the person may carry out treatment simply to avoid negative consequences rather than out of a belief that change is necessary.

This lack of insight can also be frustrating for family members and may drive them away. Family members often feel their loved one has become delusional, and they do not know what to do. Speak with your family doctor about resources available in your community if you are concerned about a loved one.

10 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Grisham JR, Baldwin PA. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorderNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015;11:951–962. doi:10.2147/NDT.S62084

  2. Boerema YE, De boer MM, Van balkom AJLM, Eikelenboom M, Visser HA, Van oppen P. Obsessive compulsive disorder with and without hoarding symptoms: characterizing differences. J Affect Disord. 2019;246:652-658. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.115 

  3. Muroff J, Bratiotis C, Steketee G. Treatment for hoarding behaviors: a review of the evidenceClin Soc Work J. 2011;39:406–423. doi:10.1007/s10615-010-0311-4

  4. Frost RO, Gross RC. The hoarding of possessions. Behav Res Ther. 1993 May;31(4):367-381.

  5. Steketee G, Frost RO. Compulsive Hoarding and Acquiring: Therapist Guide (Treatments That Work). New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006.

  6. Grisham JR, Norberg MM. Compulsive hoarding: current controversies and new directionsDialogues Clin Neurosci. 2010;12(2):233–240.

  7. Dozier ME, Ayers CR. The etiology of hoarding disorder: a review. Psychopathology. 2017;50(5):291-296. doi:10.1159/000479235

  8. International OCD Foundation. Hoarding fact sheet (.pdf).

  9. Williams M, Viscusi JA. Hoarding disorder and a systematic review of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy. Cogn Behav Ther. 2016;45(2):93-110. doi:10.1080/16506073.2015.1133697

  10. Tolin DF, Frost RO, Steketee G, Fitch KE. Family burden of compulsive hoarding: results of an internet surveyBehav Res Ther. 2008;46(3):334–344. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2007.12.008

Additional Reading

By Owen Kelly, PhD
Owen Kelly, PhD, is a clinical psychologist, professor, and author in Ontario, ON, who specializes in anxiety and mood disorders.