Panic Disorder Treatment How SSRIs Are Used in the Treatment of Panic Disorder By Katharina Star, PhD Katharina Star, PhD Facebook LinkedIn Katharina Star, PhD, is an expert on anxiety and panic disorder. Dr. Star is a professional counselor, and she is trained in creative art therapies and mindfulness. Learn about our editorial process Updated on March 25, 2020 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Steven Gans, MD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Richard Newstead / Getty Images You may have heard that antidepressants can help treat panic disorder. One class of antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are often prescribed to treat panic disorder, anxiety, and panic attacks. Learn how SSRI's are used for the treatment of panic disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or simply SSRIs, refer to a specific class of antidepressant medications. When first introduced in the 1980s, SSRIs were used to treat depression. Now established to be effective in treating panic disorder, SSRIs include medications such as Prozac (Fluoxetine), Paxil (Paroxetine), Celexa (Citalopram), Lexapro (Escitalopram), Luvox (Fluvoxamine), and Zoloft (Sertraline). As the name implies, SSRIs affect serotonin, which is a naturally occurring chemical or neurotransmitter in the brain. Serotonin is associated with the regulation of a variety of functions including mood and is considered to be imbalanced in those with anxiety issues. SSRIs focus solely on the levels of serotonin (selective) by preventing its absorption (reuptake) by nerve cells in the brain. By stabilizing levels of serotonin, these medications decrease feelings of anxiety and regulate mood, making them effective in managing depression and anxiety. Due to long-term effectiveness, limited side-effects, and validated research outcomes, SSRIs are the most commonly prescribed drug for panic disorder. If you are considering medication or are currently prescribed SSRIs, you may be wondering how this medication can help. Listed below are common ways in which SSRIs are used in the treatment of panic disorder. Symptom Reduction By and large, a person with panic disorder is prescribed SSRIs to assist in decreasing troublesome symptoms. SSRIs have been found to decrease the frequency and intensity of panic attacks. Reducing the severity of attacks helps relieve the fear associated with future attacks, which is one of the most debilitating symptoms of panic disorder. SSRIs can make a huge difference for a person who has become afraid of leaving the home or is having difficulties engaging in other necessary activities. Skill-Building Participating in therapy and self-help activities is an important part of the recovery process. Self-help strategies include breathing exercises and relaxation skills. A qualified therapist can provide cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which involves developing new ways of thinking and behaving in order to cope with panic disorder. Studies indicate that CBT alone is not as beneficial without SSRIs. CBT is a long-lasting aid in managing symptoms, but medication can assist in rapidly reducing symptoms, allowing for a greater ability to participate and benefit from psychotherapy techniques. When symptoms are under control, one may feel ready to practice exposure therapy, the gradual introduction of phobic situations to slowly build up a sense of confidence when faced with fear. For many people with panic disorder, exposure therapy is only possible with the support that SSRIs provide. Treating Co-Occurring Issues SSRIs can not only serve to combat the symptoms of panic disorder but can also alleviate coexisting issues. Other mental health issues, such as depression or different forms of anxiety, are often associated with panic disorder. Indicators of a mood disorder include such symptoms as fatigue, sadness, and diminished interest in previously pleasurable activities. Substance abuse issues are also related to panic disorder. SSRIs can be safely prescribed in such instances. Unlike sedatives, such as Xanax, Ativan, or Valium, SSRIs are non-addictive. Since dependence is not an issue, SSRIs are prescribed for longer durations of time, increasing the chances of improvement. As with any medication, there are some risks and side-effects associated with SSRIs. Some more serious side effects potentially include an increased chance of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in some younger individuals, allergic reactions, and complications during pregnancy. If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. These potential dangers are rare and should be explored with your doctor. Some of the more common side effects include nausea, headaches, weight changes, and sexual dysfunction. Due to the potential of experiencing drowsiness and dizziness typical of SSRIs, caution should be taken when driving or participating in other activities that require alertness. Some of the commonly occurring side effects often fade over time. It can be helpful to track any side effects and progress you have experienced while taking an SSRI. Such information can assist your doctor in determining if the dosage should be adjusted or medication changed. Typically, your doctor will start you out on a low dosage and increase the amount as needed. Determining what dosage is right for you will require some patience. SSRIs can take some time to be effective, sometimes need several weeks to begin to see improvements and up to several months to reach their maximum effect. Even if you believe the medication isn’t working, don’t ever abruptly stop taking SSRIs. To avoid potential complications, discontinue use only under the guidance of your doctor. Generally, most people with panic disorder will react positively to SSRIs. If you decide to try them as a part of your treatment plan, remember to remain patient, be prepared to discuss progress at each doctor visit, and expect to begin to feel relief from the symptoms of panic disorder. 5 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Strawn JR, Geracioti L, Rajdev N, Clemenza K, Levine A. Pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder in adult and pediatric patients: an evidence-based treatment review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018;19(10):1057-1070. doi:10.1080/14656566.2018.1491966 Guaiana G, Barbui C, Caldwell DM, et al. Antidepressants, benzodiazepines and azapirones for panic disorder in adults: a network meta‐analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;2017(7):CD012729. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012729 Wetherell JL, Petkus AJ, White KS, et al. Antidepressant Medication Augmented With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Older Adults. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(7):782-789. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12081104 Brady KT, Haynes LF, Hartwell KJ, Killeen TK. Substance Use Disorders and Anxiety: A Treatment Challenge for Social Workers. Soc Work Public Health. 2013;28(3-4):407-423. doi:10.1080/19371918.2013.774675 Wang SM, Han C, Bahk WM, et al. Addressing the Side Effects of Contemporary Antidepressant Drugs: A Comprehensive Review. Chonnam Med J. 2018;54(2):101-112. doi:10.4068/cmj.2018.54.2.101 Additional Reading American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. Bourne, Edmund J. The Anxiety and Phobia Workbook, 6th ed. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger; 2015. Dudley, William. Antidepressants. San Diego, CA: Reference Point Press; 2008. Preston, John D., O'Neal, John H., Talaga, Mary C. Handbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for Therapists, 7th ed. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publication; 2013. Van ApeLdoorn FJ, Van Hout WJ, Mersch PP, Huisman M, Slaap BR, Hale, et al. Is a combined therapy more effective than either CBT or SSRI alone? Results of a multi-center trial on panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117:260–70. Silverman, Harold M. The Pill Book. 15th ed. New York, NY: Bantam Books, 2012. By Katharina Star, PhD Katharina Star, PhD, is an expert on anxiety and panic disorder. Dr. Star is a professional counselor, and she is trained in creative art therapies and mindfulness. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? 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