Basics How Does Propaganda Work? By Arlin Cuncic, MA Arlin Cuncic, MA Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety." She has a Master's degree in psychology. Learn about our editorial process Published on April 12, 2022 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Daniel B. Block, MD Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Block, MD LinkedIn Twitter Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print PhotoTalk / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Goal of Propaganda Propaganda and Advertising Propaganda and War Propaganda and Politics Dangers of Propaganda Propaganda Devices How to Avoid Being Manipulated Propaganda is a type of communication that is used to promote a particular agenda or point of view. It can be used to influence people's opinions or to control their behavior. Propaganda often relies on disinformation and misinformation, which can be very effective in shaping people's opinions. One of the most common techniques used in propaganda is name-calling. This involves using derogatory terms to describe an opponent or enemy. For example, the Nazis referred to the Jews as "rats," and Iran referred to the United States as the "Great Satan." Other common techniques include appealing to emotions, using bandwagoning, and using scare tactics. Propaganda can be very effective in influencing people's opinions. For this reason, it is important to be aware of the techniques that are used in order to avoid being manipulated. What Is the Goal of Propaganda? Propaganda is used to promote a particular agenda or point of view. The goals of propaganda can vary, but common goals include shaping people's opinions, convincing them to support a particular cause or political candidate, or encouraging them to behave in a certain way. What Is an Example of Propaganda? One example of propaganda is the Nazi propaganda film "Triumph of the Will." This film was made to promote the Nazi regime and to encourage people to support Adolf Hitler. It is considered to be one of the most effective propaganda films ever made. How Is Propaganda Used in Advertising? Advertisers use persuasive techniques to try to convince people to buy their products. One example of propaganda in advertising is the use of fear tactics. Advertisers may try to convince people that they need a certain product in order to avoid a negative outcome. Another common technique is the use of bandwagoning, which is when advertisers try to convince people that everyone is using a certain product and that they should too. Why Is Propaganda Used in War? Propaganda is often used in war to shape people's opinions about the enemy. It can be used to make people support the war effort, or to discourage them from supporting the enemy. War propaganda often relies on misinformation and name-calling to achieve its goals. How Is Propaganda Used in Politics? Propaganda is often used in politics to influence people's opinions about a particular political candidate or issue. Political propaganda can take many forms, but it often relies on emotional appeals, name-calling, and scare tactics. One example of political propaganda is the "Swift Boat" ads that were used to attack John Kerry during the 2004 presidential election. What Are Some of the Dangers of Propaganda? The dangers of propaganda include that it can be very effective in shaping people's opinions, and that it can be used to control their behavior. It can also be used to spread hatred and bigotry, and to incite violence. Propaganda can also be used to deceive people, and to undermine democracy. Propaganda Devices Below is a list of some common propaganda devices: Name-calling: Name-calling involves using derogatory terms to describe an opponent or enemy. Appealing to emotions: Propaganda often relies on emotional appeals to influence people's opinions. For example, propaganda might use fear or anger to get people to support a particular cause. Bandwagoning: Bandwagoning is a technique that uses peer pressure to convince people to do something. For example, a political candidate might say "everyone is voting for me, so you should too." Scare tactics: Scare tactics are used to frighten people into supporting a particular cause. For example, a campaign might warn people that if they don't vote, then a dangerous criminal will be elected. Manipulating Information: Manipulating information involves distorting or misrepresenting the facts to influence people's opinions. For example, a political campaign might make false claims about an opponent in order to make them look bad. Using False Statistics: Using false or misleading statistics is a common propaganda technique. For example, a campaign might claim that most people support their candidate, even if this is not true. Making Unrealistic Promises: Making unrealistic promises is another common technique used in propaganda. For example, a candidate might promise to end poverty, even though this is not possible. Using Symbols: Symbols are often used in propaganda to represent an idea or concept. For example, the Nazi party used the swastika to represent their belief in racial purity. Slogans: Slogans are short, catchphrases that are used to summarize an idea or concept. For example, "Make America Great Again" was one of Donald Trump's campaign slogans. Plain Folks: The plain folks' appeal is a technique that uses average, everyday people to endorse a product or candidate. The idea is that if regular people like something, then it must be good. For example, a political campaign might use ordinary citizens in their commercials to try to appeal to voters. Testimonials: Testimonials are endorsements from famous or respected people. For example, a celebrity might endorse a candidate for office, or a doctor might endorse a new medication. Transfer: The transfer is a technique that uses positive associations to make an object or person seem more favorable. For example, a political campaign might use the American flag in their ads to make the candidate seem patriotic. Card Stacking: Card stacking is a technique that only presents information that is favorable to the person or thing being promoted. For example, a company might only show the positive reviews of their product and not the negative ones. Glittering Generalities: Glittering generalities are words or phrases that have a positive connotation, but don't really mean anything. For example, a candidate might say they are "for change," even though they don't specify what kind of change they are for. Stereotyping: Stereotyping is a technique that uses oversimplified and often inaccurate stereotypes to describe an opponent or enemy. Snob Appeal: Snob appeal is a technique that uses the idea of exclusivity to make something seem more desirable. For example, a luxury car company might use the slogan "only the best for you." Loaded Language: Loaded language is language that is loaded with emotion or meaning. For example, the phrase "pro-life" is loaded with emotional and moral weight. Weasel Words: Weasel words are words that are designed to mislead or deceive people. For example, the phrase "I'm not saying that X is a bad person, but..." is a weasel word because it implies that X is a bad person without actually saying it. How to Tell If Someone Is Lying With Psychologist Paul Ekman What Are Some Tips to Avoid Being Manipulated by Propaganda? Some ways to avoid being manipulated by propaganda include being aware of the techniques that are used, and critically evaluating the information that you see. It is also important to seek out multiple sources of information and to verify facts before making any decisions. Finally, always be skeptical of emotional appeals, and question, whether information presented, is accurate. A Word From Verywell If you are concerned about being manipulated by propaganda, the best thing you can do is to educate yourself about the techniques that are used. By being aware of the ways that information can be distorted, you can more easily see through the manipulation and make your own informed decisions. Media Plays a Part in Public’s Mistrust of Science 5 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Rai TS, Valdesolo P, Graham J. Dehumanization increases instrumental violence, but not moral violence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(32):8511-8516. doi:10.1073/pnas.1705238114 Cappucci J. The ‘great Satan’ vs. the ‘mad mullahs’: how the United States and Iran demonize each other. Cont Islam 2010;4:359–362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11562-009-0108-9 San Francisco Chronicle. Vets group attacks Kerry; McCain defends Democrat. Holocaust Encyclopedia. The History of the Swastika. NBC News. Make America Great Again. Who Said it First? By Arlin Cuncic, MA Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety." She has a Master's degree in psychology. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.