Emotions How Many Human Emotions Are There? By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry Facebook Twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial process Updated on July 01, 2021 Fact checked Verywell Mind content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. We rely on the most current and reputable sources, which are cited in the text and listed at the bottom of each article. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Learn more. by Shereen Lehman, MS Fact checked by Shereen Lehman, MS Shereen Lehman, MS, is a healthcare journalist and fact checker. She has co-authored two books for the popular Dummies Series (as Shereen Jegtvig). Learn about our editorial process Print Dimitri Otis / The Image Bank / Getty Images Emotions rule so much of our lives. Even writers and poets seem incapable of describing the full range and experience of human emotions. Emotions are at once elusive yet the facet by which we communicate the subtlest of feelings to those around us. We can't exist without them but rarely stop to consider how many there actually are. It is a question that has intrigued and challenged scientists and philosophers for generations and continues to do so today. The Study of Emotions As early as the 4th century B.C., Aristotle attempted to identify the exact number of core emotions in humans. Described as Aristotle's List of Emotion, the philosopher proposed 14 distinct emotional expressions: fear, confidence, anger, friendship, calm, enmity, shame, shamelessness, pity, kindness, envy, indignation, emulation, and contempt. In his 1872 publication The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin theorized that emotions were innate, evolved, and had a functional purpose. While Darwin did not explicitly define these "basic emotions," it is thought he envisioned a shorter list of essential emotions, including fear, anger, sadness, happiness, and love. By the 20th century, with the advent of psychotherapy, the number had expanded considerably. According to Robert Plutchick, professor emeritus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, more than 90 different definitions of "emotion" have been put forth by psychologists with the aim of accurately describing what constitutes and differentiates human emotion. In recent years, psychologists have tried to identify and categorize these emotions in a way that is considered empirical and universal. However, the number of emotions researchers settle on greatly depends on how specifically emotions are defined and the criteria used. For example, in a 2017 study, researchers identified 27 unique emotions. Still, when it comes to the most basic emotions, most psychologists will tell you that are far fewer than one might think and that larger accountings of emotional expression come from more nuanced variations of those basic feelings. Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions One of the most prominent theories of the 20th century is Robert Plutchik's wheel of emotions. In it, Plutchik proposed eight basic emotions—joy, sadness, trust, disgust, fear, anger, surprise, and anticipation—which he believed overlapped and bled into the next like hues on a color wheel. Plutchick further explained that the primary emotional "colors" can combine to form the secondary and complementary emotional "colors." For example, anticipation plus joy might combine to form optimism, while fear and surprise might together describe awe. Eckman's Facial Action Coding System Many researchers have questioned Plutchik's model and argued that his secondary and complementary emotions can often vary by culture or society. They insist that, in order for an emotion to be considered foundational, it has to be universally experienced in all cultures. To this end, psychologist Paul Ekman created what he called the facial action coding system (FACS), a classification model which measures and evaluates the movements of facial muscles as well as those of the eyes and head. Based on his theory, Ekman proposed that there are seven emotional expressions universal to people all over the world: happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, and contempt. While Ekman's work helped highlight the effect of "nature or nurture" on emotional response, much of his theory has since been criticized when, in 2004, he proposed that the same technique could be used as a means of lie detection. Four Irreducible Emotions Following on Ekman's work, a research team at the University of Glasgow in 2014 aimed to identify emotions based on facial expressions irrespective of sociocultural influences. What the researchers found was that certain emotions elicited the same facial response. Fear and surprise, for example, engaged the same facial muscles and, rather than representing two emotions, could be seen one. The same could be applied to disgust and anger or excitement and shock. Based on their findings, the scientists pared down the number of irreducible emotions to just four: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear. Beyond this, they argued, the more complex variations of emotion have evolved over the millennia under numerous social and cultural influences. The commonality of facial expressions, they say, is primarily biological (something we are born with) while the distinction between subtle and complex emotional expressions are mainly sociological (things that we, as a culture, have learned and developed over time). A Word From Verywell Emotions, and how we experience and express them, can be both abundantly apparent or remarkably subtle. The general consensus among scientists today is that the basic emotions, however many there may be, serve as the foundation for the more complex and subtle emotions that make up the human experience. 6 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Dow J. Aristotle's Theory of the Emotions: Emotions as Pleasures and Pains. Moral Psychology and Human Action in Aristotle. 2011:47-74. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546541.003.0003 Mason WA, Capitanio JP. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction. Emot Rev. 2012;4(3):238-244. doi:10.1177/1754073912439763 Plutchik R. The Nature of Emotions: Human emotions have deep evolutionary roots, a fact that may explain their complexity and provide tools for clinical practice. American Scientist. 2001;89(4):344-350. Cowen AS, Keltner D. Self-report captures 27 distinct categories of emotion bridged by continuous gradients. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2017;114(38):E7900-E7909. doi:10.1073/pnas.1702247114 Jack RE, Sun W, Delis I, Garrod OG, Schyns PG. Four not six: Revealing culturally common facial expressions of emotion. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2016;145(6):708-30. doi:10.1037/xge0000162 Freitas-Magalhães A. Facial Expression of Emotion. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior. 2012:173-183. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-375000-6.00387-6 By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.