Ophidiophobia and the Fear of Snakes

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Ophidiophobia or ophiophobia is the fear of snakes. It is possibly the most common subcategory of herpetophobia, the fear of reptiles. Some researchers believe phobias related to reptiles (and snakes specifically) may be evolutionary, developed by our ancestors as a survival mechanism.

However, this theory would not explain why snake phobias are relatively common, while fears of predatory animals, such as tigers, are rare. Some research shows that while the tendency to pay close attention to snakes may be evolutionary, the actual fear is learned rather than innate.


The fear of snakes can be tricky to diagnose, as symptoms can vary widely between people. If you have mild ophidiophobia, you may fear only encounters with large or venomous snakes.

If your phobia is more severe, you may be afraid of smaller snakes as well. You may even be unable to look at photographs or videos in which snakes appear. If you are also afraid of lizards, from small geckos to six-foot Komodo dragons, then your phobia is more properly termed herpetophobia.

Your symptoms may include, but are not limited to, shaking, crying, or running away from snakes. You may experience heart palpitations or have difficulty breathing. You may find it difficult or even impossible to remain in the same room as a snake.


Ophidiophobia can be insidious. Over time, you may begin to fear things that are not directly related to snakes themselves. For example, you may become afraid of pet stores that offer snakes for sale. You may avoid camping or hiking trips, or even zoos and nature preserves. You may also develop a secondary fear of other reptiles.


It is normal to be nervous or unsure around unfamiliar animals. In addition, there are a number of common myths about snakes. If you have never handled one, you may be nervous that it will be slimy or disgusting or afraid that you will be crushed by a constrictor.

These fears are common and can be dispelled simply by gaining more personal knowledge about animals. The symptoms listed above, on the other hand, are out of proportion to normal nervousness and may indicate an actual phobia. Only a mental health professional can make that determination.


The most common treatments for snake phobia are based on cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. You may be encouraged to talk about your fear and taught new messages to replace your fearful self-talk.

You may also be slowly exposed to snakes, beginning with photographs and gradually building up to a live encounter with a small snake in a controlled environment. Hypnosis is sometimes used to assist in relaxation.

Fortunately, ophidiophobia has an excellent chance for successful treatment.

It is important, though, to choose a therapist that you feel you can trust to help you through this process. Different treatments work for different people, so don't be afraid to try something out of the ordinary should a normal course of treatment prove ineffective. If you diligently treat your condition, things can gradually get better.

4 Sources
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  1. Van Strien JW, Franken IH, Huijding J. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:691. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00691

  2. Rádlová S, Janovcová M, Sedláčková K, et al. Snakes represent emotionally salient stimuli that may evoke both fear and disgust. Front Psychol. 2019;10:1085. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01085

  3. Harvard Medical School. Coping with anxiety and phobias.

  4. Pennsylvania State University. Ophidiophobia.

Additional Reading
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Ed). Washington DC: Author; 2013.​​

By Lisa Fritscher
Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics.