PTSD PTSD and the Military The Connection Between PTSD and Military Service By Matthew Tull, PhD Matthew Tull, PhD Twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial process Updated on March 15, 2022 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Daniel B. Block, MD Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Block, MD LinkedIn Twitter Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print MivPiv / E+ / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents History Prevalence Causes Risk Factors Treatment Post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD) is a mental health condition that can occur after experiencing a traumatic event. It affects around 6.8% of the U.S. adult population, but it tends to occur at higher rates among those who have been in the military. According to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the prevalence of PTSD among veterans was between approximately 12% and 30%, depending on the conflict where soldiers served. This article explores some of the reasons why PTSD is more common among those in military service. It also covers some of the factors that increase the risk of developing PTSD after trauma related to military service. History of PTSD Among Soldiers War and conflict have existed for millennia. So has the trauma that these experiences inflict on the people who live through them. However, post-traumatic stress disorder is a relatively young diagnosis. It was not until 1980 that PTSD was recognized as a distinct condition in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the manual that healthcare providers and therapists use to diagnose mental health conditions. While PTSD may not have had an official name until fairly recently, throughout history, people have recognized that exposure to combat situations can have a profound negative impact on a person's mind and body. In fact, the diagnosis of PTSD originates from observations of the effect of combat on soldiers. The grouping of symptoms that we now refer to as PTSD has been described in the past as "combat fatigue," "shell shock," or "war neurosis." PTSD Rates in Military Soldiers It is not surprising that high rates of PTSD have been found among soldiers from World War II, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, and the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. According to the VA, the prevalence of PTSD among military veterans depends on the combat where they served. Vietnam War: The most recent research on PSTD among Vietnam veterans was conducted during the mid-to-late 1980s. Those results found that 15.2% of men and 8.1% of women who had served in Vietnam had PTSD when the study was conducted. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD among Vietnam veterans was 30.9% for men and 26.9% for women.Gulf War (Desert Storm): Approximately 12% of veterans of the first war in Iraq report having PTSD in any given year.Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF): One study found that the prevalence rate of PTSD among veterans who served in these conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan was approximately 13.8%. The Rates of PTSD in Military Veterans PTSD Not Due to Combat Prevalence statistics suggest that PTSD stemming from combat exposure is quite common. However, people in the military may also be at risk of experiencing other types of traumatic events. Women in the military may be at high risk of experiencing sexual trauma, often referred to as military sexual trauma (MST). Statistics also suggest that many men experience sexual harassment. Among veterans who use VA healthcare services, 23% reported experiencing a sexual assault while in the military. Around 55% of women and 38% of men reported experiencing sexual harassment while serving in the military. Effects of War on a Soldier's Family Not only is war difficult for military soldiers, but it is also incredibly difficult for their families. War can have a tremendous impact on the mental health of a soldier's loved ones. Some common reactions that family members might experience include: AngerAvoidanceDepressionHealth problemsGuiltNegative feelingsSympathy Social support can play a critical role in both preventing and treating PTSD. Because of this, interventions that address the entire family and work to repair communication and improve family dynamics can be beneficial. When a Loved One Has PTSD Causes of PTSD in Soldiers PTSD occurs after a person has experienced a traumatic event. This can include combat stress, severe trauma, or life-threatening situations. When faced with a stressful event, the body first mobilizes to deal with the danger. The fight-or-flight response is activated, which prepares people to defend themselves or flee the situation. It causes a cascade of physiological effects including increased heart rate, rapid breathing, dilated pupils, and increased muscle tension. After the threat has passed, the relaxation response helps return the body to its previous state of equilibrium. People with PTSD, however, are unable to fully leave the state of heightened awareness and readiness, which results in a range of symptoms. Symptoms of PTSD in Veterans Symptoms that may emerge after a traumatic experience include: Avoidance behaviors Difficulty concentrating Dissociation Heightened startle response Intrusive thoughts Negative thoughts and moods Sleep problems Upsetting dreams Symptoms and Diagnosis of PTSD What Increases Risk for PTSD? People serving during wartime are likely to be exposed to numerous traumatic or highly stressful events. However, not everyone eventually goes on to develop PTSD. A number of factors that have been linked to an increased risk of PTSD include: Age: PTSD tends to be more common in younger age groups, but research suggests that the condition is more persistent in older veterans born prior to 1980. The intensity of combat exposure: Combat intensity, in particular, is associated with the persistence of the condition. Having another psychological or physical health condition: Co-occurring conditions such as depression are associated with an increased risk for persistent PTSD. Sleep problems: Those who report sleeping less are more likely to experience PTSD. This may be a multidimensional relationship since PTSD often causes sleep problems, and sleep difficulties also have a bidirectional relationship with other mental health conditions. Lack of social support: Supportive social relationships play an important role in determining symptom severity. Those with social connections are more likely to be able to talk about their feelings, stick to their treatment plan, and cope better with their intrusive symptoms. Some people may be more vulnerable to developing PTSD after coming into contact with a traumatic event, whereas others may be more resilient. Other factors can also increase the risk that a person will develop PTSD following a traumatic event. Genetics, social support, neurological influences, and past experiences can all play a role in the development of PTSD. Causes and Risk Factors of PTSD Treatment for PTSD There are treatments available for PTSD that can help alleviate symptoms. Getting treatment is important since untreated PTSD can interfere with a person's ability to function and the condition may become chronic. One study of PTSD among military veterans found that it often becomes a chronic condition. At the outset of the study, 47% of participants were identified as having PTSD. When retested six years later, over 70% of those individuals still had PTSD. Fortunately, help is available for those living with PTSD. A number of treatments have been developed and shown to effectively treat PTSD. Some options that are often recommended include: Medications: Antidepressant medications include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are often prescribed to help manage some of the symptoms associated with PTSD. Psychotherapy: A number of different types of psychotherapy can be helpful for relieving symptoms of PTSD. A few of these include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), cognitive processing therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. Recap Medications and psychotherapy can often help relieve the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. It is important to get treatment for the condition to help minimize the distress and disruption that symptoms may cause. Is There a Cure for PTSD? A Word From Verywell The effects of war can be far-reaching. People in the military, especially during wartime, may be at high risk for PTSD. A soldier's family may also experience high levels of stress. However, help is available, and there are a number of resources for military soldiers and their families trying to cope. If you or a loved one are struggling with PTSD, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. PTSD: Coping, Support, and Living Well 9 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Epidemiology of PTSD. Kulka RA, Schlenger WA, Fairbanks JA, Hough RL, Jordan BK, Marmar CR, et al. Trauma and the Vietnam War generation: Report of findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Kang HK, Natelson BH, Mahan CM, Lee KY, Murphy FM. Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness among Gulf War veterans: A population-based survey of 30,000 veterans. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jan 15;157(2):141-8. doi:10.1093/aje/kwf187 Tanielian T, Jaycox LH, eds. Invisible Wounds of War. Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. How common is PTSD in veterans?. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Effects of PTSD on family. Gros DF, Flanagan JC, Korte KJ, Mills AC, Brady KT, Back SE. Relations among social support, PTSD symptoms, and substance use in veterans. Psychol Addict Behav. 2016;30(7):764-770. doi:10.1037/adb0000205 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Armenta RF, Rush T, LeardMann CA, et al. Factors associated with persistent posttraumatic stress disorder among U.S. military service members and veterans. BMC Psychiatry. 2018;18:48. doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1590-5 By Matthew Tull, PhD Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist for PTSD Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.