Psychotherapy What Is Psychodynamic Therapy? By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry Facebook Twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial process Updated on January 28, 2021 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Steven Gans, MD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print FatCamera / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents What Is Psychodynamic Therapy? Uses How It Works Important Characteristics How Effective Is It? What You Can Expect A Word From Verywell Psychodynamic therapy is an approach that involves facilitation a deeper understanding of one's emotions and other mental processes. It works to help people gain greater insight into how they feel and think. By improving this understanding, people can then make better choices about their lives. They can also work on improving their relationships with other people and work toward achieving the goals that will bring them greater happiness and satisfaction. Psychodynamic therapy is rooted in psychoanalytic theory but is often a less intensive and lengthy process than traditional psychoanalysis. While psychoanalysis tends to focus a great deal on the patient and therapist relationship, psychodynamic therapy also places a great deal of emphasis on a patient’s relationships with other people in the outside world. What Is Psychodynamic Therapy? Psychodynamic therapy is a form of talk therapy. It is based on the idea that talking to a professional about problems people are facing can help them find relief and reach solutions. Through working with a psychodynamic therapist, people are able to better understand the thoughts, feelings, and conflicts that contribute to their behaviors. This approach to therapy also works to help people better understand some of the unconscious motivations that sometimes influence how people think, feel, and act. This approach to psychotherapy can be helpful for dealing with mental or emotional distress. It can help promote self-reflection, insight, and emotional growth. By better understanding your emotional patterns and their roots, you are better equipped to manage your problems and develop coping techniques that will help you both now and in the future. Uses While it is similar to psychoanalysis in many respects, it is often less frequent and shorter in duration. Like other forms of therapy, it can be used to treat a variety of mental health problems. Anxiety Depression Eating disorders Interpersonal problems Personality disorders Psychological distress Post-traumatic stress disorder Social anxiety disorder Substance use disorders Factors that may impact what type of treatment is used include cost-effectiveness, availability, patient preferences, and the severity of the symptoms the person is experiencing. While cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a popular and effective approach, evidence suggests that psychodynamic therapy can be just as effective for many conditions. Online therapy is another option that you might consider. Some research also suggests that online psychodynamic therapy may be as effective as online CBT. What Is Teletherapy? How It Works Psychodynamic therapy helps people recognize repressed emotions and unconscious influences that may be affecting their current behavior. Sometimes people act in certain ways or respond to others for reasons that they don’t really understand. Psychodynamic therapy helps people learn to acknowledge, bear, and put into perspective their emotional lives. It also helps people learn how to express their emotions in more adaptive and healthier ways. Important Characteristics Some important aspects of psychodynamic therapy include: Identifying patterns: Psychodynamic therapy helps people learn to recognize patterns in behavior and relationships. People often develop characteristic ways of responding to problems without really being aware of these tendencies. Learning to spot them, however, can help people find new approaches to coping with problems.Understanding emotions: Research has found that psychodynamic therapy is useful for exploring and understanding emotions. Through gaining insight into emotional experiences, people are better able to recognize patterns that have contributed to dysfunction and then make changes more readily.Improving relationships: Relationships with others are a key focus of psychodynamic therapy. In working with a therapist, people are able to understand how they often respond to others. The therapeutic relationship itself can serve as a way to look into the relationships a person has with other people through a process known as transference. This gives people an immediate "in vivo" way to explore and then change their pattern of responses in order to improve their relationships. How Effective Is It? How effective is psychodynamic therapy and how does it compare to other forms of treatment? Assessing the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy presents some challenges, but research does suggest that it can be useful in the treatment of a variety of psychological problems. One reason that it may be difficult to assess the full efficacy of psychodynamic therapy is that many of the changes it produces can be tough to measure. While it is relatively easy to measure changes in specific acute symptoms, it is much more difficult to measure underlying personality changes, noted researcher Jonathan Shedler in a press release by the American Psychological Association (APA). Despite this difficulty, research supports the efficacy and use of psychodynamic therapy to treat a variety of conditions. One notable review published in the journal American Psychologist concluded that the evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy.Another study found that psychodynamic therapy could be at least as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).A 2017 review published in the American Journal of Psychiatry concluded that psychodynamic therapy was as effective as other established treatments. However, the authors of the study suggested that further research was needed to determine who benefited the most from this type of treatment. What You Can Expect If you decide to try psychodynamic therapy, you may meet with your therapist weekly to a few time each week. Each session typically lasts for around 45 minutes and you will continue to see your therapist for several months. In some cases, you may keep having sessions for a year or longer. During psychodynamic therapy, people are often encouraged to talk about anything that might be on their minds. This might include things they are currently experiencing or memories of things that have happened in the past. One form of psychodynamic therapy known as brief psychodynamic therapy is designed to produce results more rapidly, often in 25 to 30 sessions. In this shorter-term form of treatment, people may initially determine a particularly emotional area where they want to focus on. Long-term psychodynamic therapy may take a year or longer and involve 50 or more therapy sessions. A Word From Verywell If you are experiencing symptoms of a mental health condition, talk to your doctor or mental health professional. They can make a diagnosis and recommend treatment options that may be best for your individual needs. Psychodynamic psychotherapy may be a good fit for you. 9 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Driessen E, Van HL, Peen J, Don FJ, Twisk JWR, Cuijpers P, Dekker JJM. Cognitive-behavioral versus psychodynamic therapy for major depression: Secondary outcomes of a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017;85(7):653-663. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000207 Bögels SM, Wijts P, Oort FJ, Sallaerts SJ. Psychodynamic psychotherapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: an efficacy and partial effectiveness trial. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31(5):363-73. doi: 10.1002/da.22246 Lindegaard T, Hesslow T, Nilsson M, et al. Internet-based psychodynamic therapy vs cognitive behavioural therapy for social anxiety disorder: A preference study. Internet Interv. 2020;20:100316. Published 2020 Mar 18. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2020.100316 American Psychological Association. Psychodynamic psychotherapy brings lasting benefits through self-knowledge. Shedler J. The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Am Psychol. 2010;65(2):98-109. doi: 10.1037/a0018378 Driessen E, Van HL, Peen J, Don FJ, Twisk JWR, Cuijpers P, Dekker JJM. Cognitive-behavioral versus psychodynamic therapy for major depression: Secondary outcomes of a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017 Jul;85(7):653-663. doi:10.1037/ccp0000207 Steinert C, Munder T, Rabung S, Hoyer J, Leichsenring F. Psychodynamic therapy: as efficacious as other empirically supported treatments? A meta-analysis testing equivalence of outcomes. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 1;174(10):943-953. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010057 Ho C, Adcock L. Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Mental Illness: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Bhar SS, Thombs BD, Pignotti M, et al. Is longer-term psychodynamic psychotherapy more effective than shorter-term therapies? Review and critique of the evidence [published correction appears in Psychother Psychosom. 2010 Jun;79(4):216]. Psychother Psychosom. 2010;79(4):208-216. doi:10.1159/000313689 By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? 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