Addiction Nicotine Use Smoking-Related Diseases Print 10 Risks of Smoking During Pregnancy By Terry Martin Updated August 20, 2019 Medically reviewed by a board-certified physician More in Addiction Nicotine Use Smoking-Related Diseases After You Quit How to Quit Smoking Nicotine Withdrawal The Inside of Cigarettes Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Coping and Recovery Cigarette smoke is a toxic mix of more than 7000 chemical compounds, 250 of which are known to be poisonous and 70 that cause cancer. Air tainted with secondhand smoke is dangerous to breathe, whether you're an active smoker or a passive smoker (a non-smoker breathing in cigarette smoke). For pregnant women, the risks are even greater because the inhaled toxins are poisonous to their unborn child as well, setting the stage for numerous health problems as they get their start in life. Let's take a look at how cigarette smoking affects both mom and the developing child she is carrying. 1 It's Harder to Get Pregnant IAN HOOTON Research has shown that it can be more difficult for smoking women to get pregnant, so if you're thinking about having children, it would be to your advantage to stop smoking well before trying to get pregnant. 2 Increased Risk of Miscarriage, Stillbirth and Ectopic Pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and ectopic pregnancy. And, although it has not yet been proven, research strongly suggests that the same risks are present for women who have quit or never smoked and are exposed to secondhand smoke before or during pregnancy. 3 Placenta Previa Risk Pregnant smokers are twice as likely to have placenta previa, a condition in which the placenta is attached to the uterine wall too close to the cervix. Women with placenta previa often have to give birth by caesarean section. 4 Placenta Abruption Risk Placenta abruption occurs when the placenta detaches from the uterus prematurely. This can cause preterm delivery, stillbirth, and even early infant death. Pregnant smokers are 1.4 to 2.4 times more likely to have this condition develop as compared to their nonsmoking counterparts. 5 Premature Rupture of Amniotic Membranes Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to experience premature rupturing of the amniotic sac, making it more difficult for them to carry to full gestational term. 6 Smaller Babies Scientists have found a cause and effect relationship between smoking or secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy and low birth weight. Low birth weight is one of the leading causes of infant death in the United States today, with upwards of 300,000 deaths attributed to it annually. 7 Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate Risk Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects that occur when the lip and/or mouth don't form properly during early pregnancy. Research has shown that the risk of these defects is higher for babies whose mothers smoked during the early months of pregnancy. 8 Increased SIDS Risk Babies born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy are at an increased risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Babies who live in a home tainted with secondhand smoke also face an increased risk of SIDS. 9 Reduced Oxygen to the Fetus Researchers suspect that nicotine in the mother's bloodstream may constrict blood vessels in the umbilical cord and uterus, reducing the amount of oxygen to the unborn child. Nicotine may also limit the amount of blood supplied to the fetal cardiovascular system. 10 Are E-Cigarettes a Safer Choice for Pregnant Moms Who Can't Quit? Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are a cigarette-like delivery system for liquid nicotine, which turns into a vapor when heated that is inhaled. While it's true that e-cigarette vapor contains fewer toxic chemicals than traditional cigarette smoke, it does deliver some potent poisons and cancer-causing chemicals to both mother and child. As mentioned above, nicotine itself is a poison and unhealthy for the developing fetus. Additionally, researchers have found formaldehyde, acrolein, heavy metals, and TSNAs, all of which are present in e-cigarette vapor. The chemicals in e-cigarette vapor may cause damage to the unborn child's brain and lungs. Additionally, some of the flavorings used in the nicotine liquid may be harmful to the developing child as well. If you're pregnant and can't stop smoking, talk to your doctor about how to approach cessation, but don't self-medicate with electronic cigarettes, thinking they're a healthy replacement for cigarettes. 11 Attention Smoking Dads: Cigarette Smoke Damages DNA in Sperm Dads-to-be should seriously consider stopping smoking along with moms-to-be. Research has shown that smoking damages DNA in sperm and can lead to fertility problems, miscarriage, and birth defects. Statistics gathered by the 2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System from 24 states in the U.S. tell us that: Approximately 10 percent of women reported smoking during the final trimester. Of those who smoked 3 months before getting pregnant, 55 percent quit during their pregnancy, but the relapse rate within 6 months of delivering was 40 percent. If you are planning to get pregnant, or you're pregnant and smoking, use the quitting smoking resources to get started with smoking cessation. It's worth every bit of work it takes to quit smoking, both to give your child the best possible start in life that you can and to live long and healthfully yourself. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! So you're ready to finally quit smoking? Our free guide can help you get on the right track. Sign up and get yours today. Email Address Sign Up There was an error. Please try again. Thank you, , for signing up. What are your concerns? Other Inaccurate Hard to Understand Submit Article Sources The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004 Surgeon General's Report: The Health Consequences of Smoking. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco Use and Pregnancy - Reproductive Health. Reviewed July 20, 2016. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Health Consequences of Smoking -- 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2014.