Should Workplace Drug Testing Be Allowed?

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Recent developments in medical technology have paved the way for workplace drug testing, to find out whether someone has recently used a drug. But should workplace drug testing of employees by their employers be allowed?


While stereotypical drug users may be unemployed and homeless, with the inability to exert any self-control, the reality is that some of the most highly educated and respected occupations are at high risk of alcohol and drug use, including physicians, lawyers, and all manner of shift workers.

It is becoming increasingly evident that substance users permeate all sectors of society. And the reasons for their drug use are complex, with drug use often being spurred on by unrealistic expectations by employers for workers to cope with extended stress and lengthy shifts.

So there are two opposing agendas at stake here—the health and safety agenda, ensuring that people in positions of responsibility are clean and sober, and the civil liberties agenda, emphasizing individual freedom, the right to privacy and protection from discrimination.


Workplace drug testing encourages greater responsibility among workers who may cause harm to themselves or others by working under the influence.

Would you be comfortable if the following professionals were working under the influence of alcohol or other drugs?

  • The midwife delivering your baby
  • The pilot flying the plane you're on
  • The bus driver taking your child to school
  • The construction worker building your house
  • The truck driver tailgating you on the highway
  • The surgeon operating on you, your spouse, or your child

Workplace drug testing can help identify employees in need of help with their substance use. Because people with addictions are often highly secretive and deceitful, drug testing circumvents the need for honest self-reporting, which is highly unreliable when people have a lot to lose; in this case, potentially, both their livelihood and their reputation.

When proper informed consent procedures are followed, workplace drug testing acts as a deterrent to people who might otherwise experiment with, or regularly use alcohol or drugs. Workplace drug testing has the potential to greatly enhance health and safety in the workplace. Testing discourages people from abusing substances and thereby suffering any ill health effects and reducing the likelihood of accidents and injuries related to working under the influence.


Workplace drug testing is an invasion of people's basic privacy. Taken out of context, and with all responsibility placed on the employee, drug testing at work also does not take into account the pressures that the work environment may place on employees.

These pressures can include:

  • Workplace hierarchies and bullying which drug testing could exacerbate
  • Insufficient support for managing work-related stress
  • Long shifts, particularly those requiring disruption to normal sleep cycles

Drug testing at work could fail to take into account the mental health problems of people with addictions. Rather than being offered the appropriate treatment, people who test positive on drug tests are at risk of being fired without compensation and may be ineligible for welfare or other social assistance. This will create or compound a marginalized underclass of disenfranchised citizens who have even less incentive to quit their addiction.

When a person's entire livelihood, reputation, and future rests on the outcome of a drug test, it's imperative that test results are accurate.

Employees need to be able to defend a positive test, which might be accounted for by other factors such as a pot-smoking roommate, a spiked drink, a poppy-seed bagel, or a prescription or over-the-counter medication. Workplace drug testing should be a justifiable course of action rather than a routine screen used to discriminate against alcohol or drug-using employees.

Although employers may have value judgments about the use of alcohol and drugs, as long as they are not being consumed on the premises, employees are not coming to work under the influence, or alcohol or drug use is interfering with the completion of work, alcohol and drug use is part of the employee's private life.


There is no denying that workplace drug testing offers an objective and generally accurate way to establish the truth of someone's drug use. In situations where the employee has a responsibility for the safety and/or welfare of others, and the employer has a responsibility to ensure the employees' competence, there is a strong argument for workplace drug testing being carried out.

However, if workplace drug testing is to be carried out, there are some basic ethical principles that need to be in place to avoid violation of the rights of the employee. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Informed consent: The employee needs to know, ideally prior to taking the job, that abstinence is an expectation, and the workplace drug testing is planned.
  • Confidentiality: The employee's privacy must be respected, including whether workplace drug testing has taken place as well as the result and consequences.
  • Reasonable expectations: Employees' ability to cope with stressful work experiences, such as exposure to traumatic or stressful events, such as caring for sick and dying people, large numbers of difficult clients, extended screen time, and excessively lengthy or changeable shifts, should be assessed.
  • Defending a positive test: Repeat tests should be conducted when a workplace drug test is positive, and employees should be given the opportunity to explain a positive drug test result.
  • Getting help: Provision of addiction counseling and/or rehab should be offered in positive drug test cases.
  • Support: For example, in transitioning to more suitable employment if appropriate.
  • Justification: There should be a clear justification of the relevance of workplace drug testing to the situation. It is a different issue entirely for an employer to test an employee when their drug use has no relevance to their job or responsibilities.

In conclusion, drug testing in the workplace should ideally be used to enhance the health and safety of employees and those receiving services. They should not be used to further marginalize drug users, by cutting off their access to employment or social welfare.

People with positive results must be treated with dignity and respect, and be supported rather than shamed; this is the only way we will avoid the misuse of workplace drug testing to discriminate. That will further establish an underclass of poverty, homelessness, unemployment, criminality, and substance abuse among those found to have positive results.

3 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Krill PR, Johnson R, Albert L. The Prevalence of Substance Use and Other Mental Health Concerns Among American Attorneys. J Addict Med. 2016;10(1):46-52. doi:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000182

  2. Caruso CC. Negative Impacts of Shiftwork and Long Work Hours. Rehabil Nurs. 2014;39(1):16-25. doi:10.1002/rnj.107

  3. Society of Human Resource Management. Workplace Drug Testing: Weighing the Pros and Cons. 2020.

Additional Reading

By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD
Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada.