Stress Hormones May Aggravate Seasonal Allergies, Study Finds

drawing of people walking beneath flowers sneezing

Verywell / Madelyn Goodnight

Key Takeaways

  • New research has found that a stress hormone can multiply the cells that trigger nasal allergies.
  • It echoes the findings of earlier studies that have uncovered a relationship between stress and allergy symptoms.
  • While reducing stress may help improve symptoms, it’s not a substitute for medication and other allergy treatments, experts say.

Finding ways to reduce stress can provide a range of physical and mental health benefits to everyone, but it may come with an added advantage for the 60 million people in the U.S. who deal with seasonal allergies. 

A new study published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences has found that the presence of a stress hormone may aggravate nasal allergies. The findings may eventually open the door to new treatments for seasonal allergies in the future.

Here’s what to know about the latest research on the relationship between stress and allergies.

The Study

In a study published earlier this month, a team of researchers led by scientists in Osaka, Japan, ran a series of experiments to explore the link between increased allergic reactions and the corticotropin-releasing stress hormone (CRH). Stress causes the body to release CRH, which then helps release cortisol, the primary stress hormone that puts the body in fight-or-flight mode. 

Purvi Parikh, MD

When people are stressed out, it worsens all allergic conditions. Sinus allergies get worse, and if a person is prone to hives or rashes, that gets worse, too.

— Purvi Parikh, MD

When the researchers added CRH to a nasal polyp organ culture, they noticed that the number of mast cells, which drive allergic reactions, increased substantially in human nasal mucosa (the lining of the nasal cavity). The reaction also stimulated activity in mast cells, which leads to the release of chemicals that trigger allergic reactions. 

“Mast cells have receptors where allergens and antibodies can interact. When the allergen and antibodies get connected to the mast cell, the mast cell extrudes chemicals responsible for itchiness, mucus production, or coughing that can go along with allergy symptoms,” explains Dr. Tiffany Owens, an allergist and immunologist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. “Everyone has mast cells, but not everyone’s mast cells interact with antibodies because the allergy antibodies are made by the individual person.”

The researchers also explored the potential of antalarmin, an experimental drug that blocks CRH receptors, as a treatment for allergies. They found that antalarmin helped prevent stress hormones from increasing the number of mast cells and their activity in the nasal mucosa of mice. Still, more research is needed to determine the effect of the drug on humans.

“We don’t have antalarmin as a treatment we use now, but if it helps prevent stress-related inflammation, it could be a potential treatment option far down the road in the future,” says Dr. Owens.

The findings offer confirmation of what some allergists like Dr. Purvi Parikh, spokesperson for the Allergy & Asthma Network, have seen when treating patients with allergies and high levels of stress.

“When people are stressed out, it worsens all allergic conditions. Sinus allergies get worse, and if a person is prone to hives or rashes, that gets worse, too,” she says. “We also notice that people have anaphylactic reactions even more so when they are under stress, either physical or mental.”

Earlier Research on Stress and Allergies

This new research builds upon earlier studies on the relationship between stress and allergies.

A 2013 study published in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology found that people who had persistent emotional stress tended to have a higher frequency of allergy flares. However, it did not find that cortisol was associated with allergy symptoms. 

Tiffany Owens, MD

It’s hopeful that’s this is not just a pharmaceutical study focused on what drug we can sell you to make this better.

— Tiffany Owens, MD

And a randomized controlled trial from 2009 showed that stress and anxiety could worsen and prolong symptoms of allergic rhinitis, a group of nasal symptoms (like sneezing and itchy, watery eyes) that occur when you inhale something you’re allergic to.

The latest study helps advance scientific understanding of how a particular stress hormone can lead to an allergic reaction. 

“This continues to intrigue us as physicians and as patients, to think about our bodies as this complex machinery interacting with our internal and external environments, and there are many factors involved,” says Dr. Owens. “It’s hopeful that’s this is not just a pharmaceutical study focused on what drug we can sell you to make this better.”

Coping With Allergies

If allergies make you miserable in the spring (or any time of year), consider working with an allergist to control your symptoms. They may recommend medications to ease your symptoms and/or allergy shots (immunotherapy) to build your tolerance to certain allergens, such as pollen.

While the research on stress and allergies is promising, experts say that reducing stress probably isn’t enough to provide relief from allergy symptoms.

“I want to stress that this is not a replacement for traditional therapies,” says Dr. Parikh. “Managing stress should be done together with other treatments. Sometimes people think, ‘I’ll do yoga and not take my medications,’ but you should do both if you need them.“ 

Purvi Parikh, MD

I want to stress that this is not a replacement for traditional therapies. Managing stress should be done together with other treatments.

— Purvi Parikh, MD

The findings on the latest study are just further evidence that stress reduction should be incorporated into a broader healthy lifestyle routine — not only for people with allergies, but for everyone, says Dr. Owens.

“I do recommend stress reduction, not so much if someone came in and said they have itchy eyes and a runny nose, but more in terms of general health and wellness,” she says. “This is just another encouragement to take care of ourselves, pay attention to what our bodies are telling us, and do the least amount of detriment. We can do some really good things for ourselves by taking time to rest and pay attention to healthy habits.”

Read Next: Top 10 Things to Know About the Effects of Stress

What This Means For You

High stress levels can damage your physical and mental health. Now, new research shows that it may also aggravate symptoms of seasonal allergies, which affect up to 60 million people in the U.S. each year. 

While experts say that stress reduction is not a substitute for traditional allergy treatment, it can be beneficial to incorporate it into an overall healthy lifestyle routine that may, in turn, improve your symptoms. If your allergies are acting up, get in touch with an allergist to see if medications or immunotherapy can help.

4 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. National Center for Environmental Health. Allergens and Pollen. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  2. Yamanaka-Takaichi M, Mizukami Y, Sugawara K, Sunami K, Teranishi Y, Kira Y, Paus R, Tsuruta D. Stress and Nasal Allergy: Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulates Mast Cell Degranulation and Proliferation in Human Nasal MucosaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(5):2773. Publishd March 9, 2021. doi: 10.3390/ijms22052773

  3. Patterson AM, Yildiz VO, Klatt MD, Malarkey WB. Perceived stress predicts allergy flaresAnnals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2014;112(4):317-321. Published August 8, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2013.07.013

  4. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Heffner KL, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Porter K, Atkinson C, Laskowski B, Lemeshow S, Marshall GD. How stress and anxiety can alter immediate and late phase skin test responses in allergic rhinitis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009 Jun;34(5):670-80. Published June 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.11.010.

By Joni Sweet
Joni Sweet is an experienced writer who specializes in health, wellness, travel, and finance.