Addiction Addictive Behaviors Print 10 Cognitive Distortions Identified in CBT By Elizabeth Hartney, PhD Updated July 16, 2019 Medically reviewed by a board-certified physician More in Addiction Addictive Behaviors Caffeine Internet Shopping Sex Alcohol Use Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery The basis of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is identifying cognitive distortions, also known as twisted thinking. This distorted thinking pattern causes negative feelings, which in turn can worsen an addiction. Dr. David Burns, a pioneer in CBT, identifies 10 forms of twisted thinking in his 1999 bestselling book, The Feeling Good Handbook. Here's how this kind of thinking can lead to addiction or relapse. 1 All-or-Nothing Thinking Matt Cardy / Getty Images All-or-nothing thinking can easily lead to relapse. For example, Joan feels like a failure at getting sober. Every time she has a slip-up, instead of acknowledging that she made a mistake and trying to move past it, she drinks to intoxication the same night, figuring she has already blown it. 2 Overgeneralization Instants / Getty Images Overgeneralization happens when you make a rule after a single event or a series of coincidences. The words "always" or "never" frequently appear in the sentence. Here's an example: Ben has inferred from a series of coincidences that seven is his lucky number and has overgeneralized this to gambling situations involving the number seven, no matter how many times he loses. 3 Mental Filters Daniel Grill / Getty Images A mental filter is an opposite overgeneralization, but with the same negative outcome. Instead of taking one small event and generalizing it inappropriately, the mental filter takes one small event and focuses on it exclusively, filtering out anything else. An example of how mental filters can lead to addiction or relapse: Nathan feels like he needs to use cocaine in social situations because he filters out all the good social experiences he has without cocaine, and instead fixates on the times he has not been on cocaine and others have seemed bored by his company. 4 Discounting the Positive Matt Dutile / Getty Images Discounting the positive is a cognitive distortion that involves ignoring or invalidating good things that have happened to you. For example, Joel compulsively seduces then rejects strangers because he discounts all of the positive non-sexual human interactions he has each day since they aren't as intense or pleasurable as having sex with a stranger. 5 Jumping to Conclusions John Moore / Staff There are two ways of jumping to conclusions: Mind reading, where you think someone is going to react in a particular way, or you believe someone is thinking things that they aren'tFortune telling, when you predict events will unfold in a particular way, often to avoid trying something difficult Here's an example: Jamie engaged in fortune-telling when he believed that he wouldn't be able to stand life without heroin. In reality, he could and he did. 6 Magnification CaiaImage / Getty Images Magnification is exaggerating the importance of shortcomings and problems while minimizing the importance of desirable qualities. A person addicted to pain medication might magnify the importance of eliminating all pain, and exaggerate how unbearable his or her pain is. An example of how magnification can lead to addiction or relapse: Ken spends his life savings looking for a pill to take away his pain and depression. 7 Emotional Reasoning Sian Kennedy / Getty Images Emotional reasoning is a way of judging yourself or your circumstances based on your emotions. For instance, Jenna used emotional reasoning to conclude that she was a worthless person, which in turn lead to binge eating. 8 Should Statements Matthew Lloyd / Stringer "Should" statements are self-defeating ways we talk to ourselves that emphasize unattainable standards. Then, when we fall short of our own ideas, we fail in our own eyes. An example: Cheryl became addicted to overspending on shoes because she couldn't live up to her own high standards. 9 Labeling Christopher Furlong / Staff Labeling is a cognitive distortion that involves making a judgment about yourself or someone else as a person, rather than seeing the behavior as something the person did that doesn't define him or her as an individual. Here's an example of how labeling can lead to addiction or relapse: Shannon labeled herself a bad person unable to fit into mainstream society. 10 Personalization and Blame Volanthevist / Getty Images Personalization and blame is a cognitive distortion whereby you entirely blame yourself, or someone else, for a situation that in reality involved many factors. Anna blamed herself for childhood abuse by her father, reasoning that if she hadn't led him on, it never would have happened (this is actually what her father had told her at the time). Because she personalized the abuse, she grew up with a compulsive avoidance of sex, known as sexual anorexia. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Learn the best ways to manage stress and negativity in your life. Email Address Sign Up There was an error. Please try again. Thank you, , for signing up. What are your concerns? Other Inaccurate Hard to Understand Submit Article Sources Burns D. The Feeling Good Handbook. Revised edition. New York: Penguin; 1999.