Phobias Types Thalassophobia (Fear of the Ocean): Symptoms and Ways to Cope By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MSEd Facebook Twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book." Learn about our editorial process Updated on May 12, 2023 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Steven Gans, MD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Verywell / JR Bee Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Causes, Triggers, & Risk Factors Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Thalassophobia Treatment Complications of Thalassophobia Thalassophobia Prevention Tips for Coping With Thalassophobia Thalassophobia is a specific phobia that involves a persistent, intense fear of deep bodies of water such as the ocean or a lake. It stems from the Greek word thalassa ("the sea") and phobos ("fear"). Although not recognized as a distinct disorder by the DSM-5, its symptoms meet the diagnostic criteria for specific phobias. Thalassophobia differs from aquaphobia, the fear of water, in that it centers on bodies of water that seem vast, dark, deep, and dangerous. People are not afraid of the water so much as they are afraid of what lurks beneath its surface. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), phobias are the most common type of mental illness in the United States. While specific phobias themselves are quite common among the general population, it is unknown how many people have thalassophobia. 2:19 Click Play to Learn More About the Fear of the Ocean This video has been medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD. Specific phobias tend to be one of five different types: Animal typeBlood-injection typeNatural-environment typeSituational typeOther Thalassophobia is usually considered a natural-environment type of specific phobia. Natural environment fears tend to be one of the more frequently experienced types of phobias, with some studies suggesting that water-related phobias tend to be more common among women. How Common Are Phobias? What Is Thalassophobia Caused By? There are a number of factors that may cause this fear of the ocean and sea. Like other types of phobia, it is likely a combination of nature and nurture that contributes to thalassophobia. Genetics From a nature perspective, evolution and genetics may play a role. Our ancestors who were more cautious and fearful of deep bodies of water were probably more likely to survive and pass down these fearful genes to their offspring. Past Experiences This fear may also be partially learned due to experiences people may have had around water. Being frightened by something while swimming, for example, may also be a possible cause of this type of fear. Upbringing Observing other people, particularly parental figures and other influential adults, who also had a fear of deep water might also be a contributing factor. There are also a number of risk factors that might increase the likelihood that a person will develop a specific phobia such as thalassophobia. Some of these include: Having a family member with thalassophobia or another type of specific phobiaPersonality factors, such as being more negative, sensitive, or anxiousTraumatic personal experiences involving deep water, large bodies of water, or ocean travelHearing stories from other people or through media sources focused on water accidents Signs & Symptoms of Thalassophobia A phobia can trigger both physical and emotional symptoms of anxiety and fear. Some of the common physical symptoms of thalassophobia include: DizzinessLightheadednessNauseaRacing heartRapid breathingShortness of breathSweating Emotional symptoms can include: Being overwhelmedFeelings of anxietyFeeling detached from the situationHaving a sense of imminent doomNeeding to escape This fear response can happen if you come into direct contact with the ocean or other deep bodies of water, such as driving past the beach or flying over the ocean on a plane. But you don't necessarily have to be near water to experience symptoms. For some people, simply imaging deep water, looking at a photograph of the water, or even the sight of words like "ocean" or "lake" is enough to trigger the response. A phobic response is more than just feeling nervous or anxious. Imagine how you felt the last time you were faced with something dangerous. You probably experienced an immediate and intense onset of the fight-or-flight response, a series of reactions that prepare your body to either stay and deal with the threat or run away from the danger. A person with thalassophobia will experience that same reaction even if the response is out of proportion to the actual danger. In addition to these physical symptoms when encountering deep water, people will also go to great lengths to avoid being near or having to even look at large bodies of water. They may experience anticipatory anxiety when they know that they will be encountering the object of their fear, such as feeling extremely nervous before boarding a ferry boat and forms of water travel. Techniques to Take the Fight or Flight Response Thalassophobia Diagnosis If you suspect you might have thalassophobia, there are a few things that you can do. An informal online test might give you an indication that you have this type of specific phobia. Such internet-based, at-home tests might involve looking at potentially triggering images or taking a quiz to determine the extent and severity of your symptoms. For a more formal diagnosis, you will need to consult a health professional such as a doctor, psychiatrist, or psychologist. While there is no formal test or assessment to diagnose this phobia, your doctor will likely assess your symptoms and investigate any possible underlying medical factors. Once your doctor understands your medical and symptom history, you may then be formally diagnosed with a specific phobia. In order to be diagnosed with a specific phobia according to the DSM-5: Your fear of deep water is persistent, excessive, and unreasonableYou feel this fear every time you are exposed to deep or open waterYou realize that your fear is out of proportion to the actual dangersYou either avoid the ocean or other waters or endure them with intense fearYour fear of large bodies of water interferes with your normal functioningYou fear has been present for six months or longerYour fear is not better explained by another disorder such as generalized anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder Thalassophobia Treatment While there is no research available on the treatment of thalassophobia specifically, it is assumed that people would experience similar treatment results to those of other phobias. Research suggests that behavior therapy treatments, particularly exposure-based treatments, tend to be quite effective at reducing symptoms of specific phobias. Other forms of behavioral therapy found effective for phobias include: Cognitive behavioral therapy Systematic desensitization Research has found that not all treatments have the same effectiveness for different subtypes of specific phobias. In vivo exposure (which involves being exposed to the fear object in real life), for example, while effective for all types, also has high dropout rates and poor treatment acceptance. Research suggests that in vivo exposure tends to be more effective than imagined exposure, but a study published in Frontiers in Psychology found that virtual exposure appeared as effective as real-world exposure. Of course, exposure to a fear object in real-life is not always possible, particularly if it involves something dangerous or impossible. In the case of thalassophobia, live exposure to open water may be the most effective but imagined exposure may provide some benefits if this is not possible. Treatment may sometimes encompass a number of different strategies including gradual exposure, systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring, and relaxation techniques. Complications of Thalassophobia Although thalassophobia may simply sound like a quirky fear to some, it can make life difficult for those who have struggle with it. These complications can ultimately end up impacting many different areas of a person’s life. Panic Attacks A panic attack is characterized by sudden and intense feelings of fear, accompanied by physical symptoms that can include chest pain, feelings of choking, numbness, feelings of unreality, and a fear of dying. Loneliness and Social Isolation Anxiety symptoms and fear of suffering a panic attack can sometimes lead people to avoid situations where they might come into contact with their fear object. Depression Research has shown that people with specific phobias also sometimes experience mood changes or symptoms of depression. Substance Misuse People may sometimes self-treat symptoms of anxiety with alcohol and other substances. Thalassophobia Prevention While genetic and evolutionary factors may play a role in the onset of specific phobias such as thalassophobia, there are steps people may take to help prevent such fears from developing. Because thalassophobia is often provoked by a specific stressful or traumatic experience, how such experiences are dealt with can play a major role in whether a phobia eventually takes hold. Some steps you can take to minimize the risk of developing thalassophobia include: Get help early: If you suspect you might be developing a severe fear of deep or open water, look for ways to deal with your anxiety as soon as possible. This might involve talking to a mental health professional about what you can do to ease your fears.Model desired behaviors: Children may learn phobic responses from parents, so if you have a fear of deep, dark water, your child may pick up on your anxiety as well. Seeing you respond fearfully to certain things and situations may result in your child developing the same fear response. You can help prevent this by confronting your own fears in a positive way and modeling non-anxious behaviors around your children. Tips for Coping With Thalassophobia Dealing with thalassophobia can be challenging, but there are things that you can do to cope and ease your fears. Relaxation Strategies When you find yourself experiencing fear-related symptoms in response to water or even the thought of water, try a relaxation technique to calm your mind and body, including: Deep breathing Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) Visualization The more you practice these techniques, the better able you will be able to control your symptoms in the face of your fears. Relaxation Techniques for Phobias Self-Exposure While treatment under the care of a therapist is often best, you can also take a self-help approach to confront your fears. Start by simply visualizing yourself near a deep body of water, then use the relaxation techniques you have been practicing to calm yourself. Over time, gradually expose yourself to the source of your fear, starting with images, then smaller bodies of water, and eventually the ocean, sea, or large lake. Each time, use your relaxation methods to ease your fear response. Over time, your fears should begin to ease and you should find it much easier to reach a calm state of mind. Note: Always use caution and never place yourself in a potentially unsafe situation. The key is to only confront your fear in a well-controlled environment. Summary The most important thing to remember when trying to cope with your thalassophobia is to be kind to yourself. Specific phobias are quite common, so while not everyone shares your exact fear, many people have been in your shoes and know what it to experience such overwhelming feelings of anxiety. Give yourself the time and resources you need to deal with your fears and don’t be afraid to reach out to a doctor or therapist if you need help managing your anxiety. If you or a loved one are struggling with a phobia, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. How Does Therapy for Phobias Work? 4 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. American Psychiatric Association; 2013. Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Horowitz JD, Powers MB, Telch MJ. Psychological approaches in the treatment of specific phobias: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 2008; 28(6): 1021-1037. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.02.007 Wechsler TF, Kümpers F, Mühlberger A. Inferiority or even superiority of virtual reality exposure therapy in phobias?-a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials specifically comparing the efficacy of virtual reality exposure to gold standard in vivo exposure in agoraphobia, specific phobia, and social phobia. Front Psychol. 2019;10:1758. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01758 Choy, Y, Fyer, AJ, and Goodwin, RD. Specific phobia and comorbid depression: A closer look at the National Comorbidity Survey Data. Compr Psychiatry. 2007; 48(2): 132-136. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.10.010 Additional Reading Anthony, MM & Barlow, DH. Specific Phobias. In Caballo, VE. (Ed.), International Handbook of Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments for Psychological Disorders. Oxford, Elsevier Science; 1998. Bajwa M, Chaudhry A, Saeed R. Prevalence and factors associated with phobias among women. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry. 2014; 5(2):140-145. Choy Y, Fyer AJ, Lipsitz JD. Treatment of specific phobia in adults. Clinical Psychology Review. 2007;27(3); 266-286. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.10.002 By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book." See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist for Phobias Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.