Brain Health Benefits, Dosage, and Side Effects of Phosphatidylserine By Cathy Wong Updated on July 05, 2022 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Caitilin Kelly, MD Medically reviewed by Caitilin Kelly, MD Caitilin Kelly, MD, is a clinical physician at Indiana University Health Bloomington Hospital and is board-certified in internal medicine. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Benefits Side Effects Dosage and Preparation What to Look For Frequently Asked Questions Phosphatidylserine is a fatty substance produced in the body that covers and protects cells and is involved in blood clotting. It's particularly vital for the proper functioning of nerve cells within the brain, helping to transmit messages between them. As an essential component of healthy nerve cell membranes, phosphatidylserine is thought to have a key role in keeping memory sharp. Studies in animals suggest that levels decline with age, and supplements may counteract this. Phosphatidylserine is found naturally in certain foods and is also sold as a dietary supplement. Phosphatidylserine supplements are touted as a natural remedy for a variety of health conditions, including: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Alzheimer's disease Anxiety Depression Multiple sclerosis Stress In addition, phosphatidylserine supplements are purported to preserve memory, promote healthy sleep, improve mood, and enhance exercise performance. This article discusses some phosphatidylserine benefits as well as some possible side effects to watch for. It also covers phosphatidylserine dosage and how to take this supplement. Verywell / Gary Ferster Health Benefits of Phosphatidylserine A handful of studies have explored the health effects of phosphatidylserine supplements. However, most of the studies are small and dated. Boosts Athletic Performance Phosphatidylserine supplements may help increase exercise capacity and improve athletic performance, according to a report published in Sports Medicine. Researchers also found that phosphatidylserine may help decrease muscle soreness and protect against an increase in levels of cortisol, a stress hormone that often occurs as a result of overtraining. May Improve Memory Loss Phosphatidylserine is often taken to try to slow age-related memory loss. In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 78 older people with mild cognitive impairment were assigned to six months of treatment with phosphatidylserine supplements or a placebo. In tests performed at the end of the six-month period, participants who took phosphatidylserine were found to have experienced a significant improvement in memory. May Ease Depression Phosphatidylserine is thought to play a role in helping to regulate mood. In a 2015 study published in Mental Illness, for instance, people over the age of 65 with major depression took a supplement containing phosphatidylserine and the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA three times daily for 12 weeks. At the study's end, scores on a depression scale had improved. More research is needed from large-scale, well-designed clinical studies before phosphatidylserine (or DHA) can be recommended for depression. This Mental Illness study, for example, cannot conclude whether phosphatidylserine, DHA, EPA, or the combination of supplements provides benefits. May Treat ADHD Symptoms Using phosphatidylserine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids may aid in the treatment of ADHD symptoms in children, suggests a 2012 study published in European Psychiatry. For the study, 200 children with ADHD were assigned to 15 weeks of treatment with either a placebo or a supplement containing phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acids. Study results revealed that participants treated with the combination of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acids experienced a significantly greater reduction in hyperactive/impulsive behavior and a greater improvement in mood compared to those given the placebo. Another study published in 2014 compared phosphatidylserine to placebo in children who had been diagnosed with ADHD. After two months, the treatment group showed significant improvement in auditory memory, inattention, and impulsivity. This was a small study involving only 36 children. More and larger studies need to be performed to further assess safety and efficacy. Recap While research is limited, there is some evidence that phosphatidylserine may help improve exercise capacity, alleviate muscle soreness, protect memory, regulate mood, and improve symptoms of ADHD. However, further research is needed to explore these possible benefits. Possible Side Effects of Phosphatidylserine Phosphatidylserine may trigger a number of side effects, including insomnia, gas, and stomach upset. Phosphatidylserine may have a blood-thinning effect. If you're taking blood-thinning medication like Coumadin (warfarin) or anti-inflammatory medication or have blood-clotting problems, speak with your doctor before taking phosphatidylserine. Do not take it within two weeks of scheduled surgery. Phosphatidylserine supplements may also interact with medications used to treat glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, antihistamines, and antidepressants. Because additional potential interactions with many medications have not been tested, it is advisable to ask your doctor before using phosphatidylserine. Supplements haven't been tested for safety and due to the fact that dietary supplements are largely unregulated, the content of some products may differ from what's specified on the product label. Also keep in mind that the safety of supplements in people who are pregnant or breastfeeding, children, and those with medical conditions or who are taking medications has not been established. Recap Phosphatidylserine can have side effects that you should be aware of before you take this supplement. You may experience stomach upset or insomnia. It may also interact with other medications. You should always discuss the medications you are taking and other health concerns you may have with a healthcare provider before you begin taking phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine Dosage and Preparation A 2015 review article noted that 300 milligrams to 800 milligrams a day of phosphatidylserine are absorbed efficiently in humans, and according to the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, the therapeutic dose for memory loss is 100 milligrams taken two or three times per day. If you're thinking of taking a supplement containing phosphatidylserine, talk to a healthcare provider about what dosage might be most appropriate for you. You can boost your intake of phosphatidylserine through food—it's available in a number of foods, including soy (which is the main source), white beans, egg yolks, chicken liver, and beef liver. Unfortunately, it's difficult for your body to absorb sufficient amounts of phosphatidylserine from dietary sources. What to Look For Most of the phosphatidylserine used in studies was derived from the brain cells of cows. Because of safety concerns about mad cow disease, most supplements are now produced from soy or cabbage. Preliminary studies have shown that plant-based phosphatidylserine supplements may also offer benefits (for instance, the 2010 study on memory used soy-based phosphatidylserine), but more research is needed. However, phosphatidylserine doesn't seem to be a current focus of research, suggesting its limited effect. A Word From Verywell Although small studies have shown some benefits, there's a lack of high-quality human research to support the many claims for phosphatidylserine. It may be wise to stick with other methods until more is known. To maintain your memory and brain functioning, try adding exercise and mental activity. Research suggests that physical activity can increase the size of areas of the brain (like the hippocampus) that are important for memory. Mindfulness meditation has also been shown to affect these areas. If you're still thinking of trying phosphatidylserine, be sure to consult your primary care provider first. Avoid self-treating any medical condition and avoiding or delaying standard care. Frequently Asked Questions What foods contain phosphatidylserine? Phosphatidlylserine can be found in organ meats, soy beans, and white beans. Some other foods, such as eggs and dairy products, contain negligible amounts of phosphatidylserine. Does Neuriva have side effects? Neuriva is a brain health supplement that contains phosphatidylserine along with other ingredients including folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and coffee fruit extract. Side effects may include stomach upset, sleepiness, or sleep difficulties. How Taking Pregnenolone Might Boost Brain Health 6 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Glade MJ, Smith K. Phosphatidylserine and the human brain. Nutrition. 2015;31(6):781-6. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.10.014 Kingsley M. Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans. Sports Med. 2006;36(8):657-669. doi:10.2165/00007256-200636080-00003 Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, Nonaka C, Asano T, Miyamori T. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010;47(3):246-55. doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-62 Komori T. The Effects of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement on late life depression. Ment Illn. 2015;7(1):5647. doi:10.4081/mi.2015.5647 Manor I, Magen A, Keidar D, et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension. Eur Psychiatry. 2012;27(5):335-42. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.05.004 Hirayama S, et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014;27 Suppl 2:284-91. doi:10.1111/jhn.12090 See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.