Benzodiazepines Uses, Indications, and Side Effects

Side Effects of Medication
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What is the most important information I should know about benzodiazepines?

  • Benzodiazepines carry a risk for dependence and addiction, so they should only be used as a short-term treatment.
  • Do not stop taking benzodiazepines without talking to your doctor; these medications should be tapered slowly to minimize risky withdrawal complications.

Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs known as central nervous system depressants, used to treat various mood disorders and other health conditions, including seizures, insomnia, and alcohol withdrawal.

While they're effective in treating these conditions for a short time, benzodiazepines may cause frustrating side effects like drowsiness, loss of libido, and lack of coordination.

Long-term use of benzodiazepines can lead to adverse behavioral symptoms and drug dependence.

How Benzodiazepines Work

Benzodiazepines work by enhancing your brain's response to a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This reduces the excitability of nerve signals in your brain and slows it down. By slowing nerve signals in the brain, it leads to the relaxation of certain physiological and emotional responses. This results in a calming, tranquilizing feeling.

Benzodiazepine Uses

Benzodiazepines have properties that make them useful in treating a number of health conditions. They can act as a muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant and also have sedative (relaxing), hypnotic (sleep-inducing), and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects.

Some of their indications for use include:

  • Alcohol withdrawal symptoms, particularly agitation and anxiety, may sometimes be relieved with a short-term course of benzodiazepines, although the response can vary from person to person. Because of the risk of drug dependence, benzodiazepines are usually prescribed for no more than a couple of weeks.
  • Certain types of epileptic seizures can sometimes be effectively controlled with Klonopin, Valium, or Ativan. Klonopin offers stronger anticonvulsant action, while Valium works faster. Valium has the longest duration of action, while Klonopin and Ativan are considered intermediate-duration benzodiazepines.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and other anxiety disorders can be treated with benzodiazepines, although they are less effective in achieving long-term control. They shouldn't be used for more than two to four weeks due to the risk of dependence.
  • Insomnia can be alleviated over the short term with benzodiazepines but may result in rebound insomnia if overused. Long-term use should be strictly avoided.
  • Panic disorder may be effectively treated with benzodiazepines as they can alleviate anxiety symptoms much faster than antidepressants. This may be an important factor for those who experience severe or debilitating panic attacks.

Other uses include the inducement of calm before surgery or a medical procedure and the treatment of muscle spasms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and abnormal sleep patterns.

Prescribing benzodiazepines for uses not approved by the FDA is considered "off-label" use. This includes prescribing the medication for periods longer than considered the effective time on the drug label, such as in the long-term treatment of anxiety disorders.

Types of Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines come in different formulations. Some are short-acting, some are long-acting, and they vary in potency. The most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines and the conditions they're typically prescribed to treat include:

  • Xanax (alprazolam) treats anxiety disorders and panic disorder, and sometimes agoraphobia (fear of open spaces). It is also sometimes prescribed off-label for depression and premenstrual syndrome.
  • Klonopin (clonazepam) treats panic disorder and seizures.
  • Valium (diazepam) is used to treat anxiety, seizures, muscle spasms, and alcohol withdrawal. It is also sometimes prescribed off-label for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • Ativan (lorazepam) is primarily prescribed for anxiety. However, it may also be used off-label for seizures, IBS, insomnia, alcohol withdrawal, and to help nausea and vomiting in people receiving cancer treatments.
  • Halcion (triazolam) is used as a short-term treatment for insomnia.

Other benzodiazepines and the conditions they're typically prescribed to treat include:

  • Restoril (temazepam), estazolam, and flurazepam are short-term treatments for insomnia.
  • Versed (midazolam) is commonly used in children before medical procedures or surgery.
  • Librium (chlordiazepoxide) treats anxiety and alcohol withdrawal.
  • Tranxene (clorazepate) is used for anxiety and alcohol withdrawal, and it may be prescribed along with other medications to control seizures.
  • Serax (oxazepam) treats anxiety and alcohol withdrawal.

Common Benzodiazepine Side Effects

Most of the side effects of benzodiazepines are related to the depressant effect the drug has on your central nervous system. Common side effects depend on the medication you're using but, in general, they include:

  • Constipation
  • Confusion
  • Depression
  • Diarrhea
  • Drowsiness
  • Dry mouth
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Impaired motor skills and coordination
  • Irritability
  • Loss of appetite or increased appetite
  • Low libido
  • Muscle weakness
  • Short-term memory loss and impaired cognition

Long-Term Side Effects

Long-term use of benzodiazepines may trigger a worsening of side effects and, in some cases, paradoxical side effects, meaning that you may experience an opposite response to the drug than you previously had. Some of these side effects can adversely affect your mood and behavior, causing an altered perception of yourself, your environment, or your relationships.

Long-term side effects may include:

  • Acute anxiety
  • Agoraphobia (the fear of open or public spaces)
  • Anhedonia (the inability to feel pleasure)
  • Depression
  • Inability to think cohesively
  • Loss of libido
  • Social phobias

Benzodiazepine Dependence and Addiction

Benzodiazepines are a Schedule IV medication due to their risk of physical and psychological addiction. As such, they are usually prescribed for no more than two to four weeks.

When they're taken for longer periods, benzodiazepines can lead to tolerance and dependence, meaning that your body will require more of the drug to achieve the same therapeutic effect. This can lead to abuse and/or dependence.

If you or a loved one are struggling with substance use or addiction, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area.

Benzodiazepine Withdrawal

If you use any of these drugs for too long, you can experience symptoms of withdrawal if you suddenly stop. Don't ever stop taking a benzodiazepine without talking to your doctor first.

Your dosage will be gradually tapered off to minimize some of the more profound symptoms of withdrawal, including:

  • Abdominal cramps
  • An altered sense of reality
  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Depression
  • Hallucinations
  • Increased sensitivity to light, pain, and/or sound
  • Insomnia
  • Irritability
  • Muscle cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Nervousness
  • Paranoia
  • Profuse sweating
  • Seizures and convulsions
  • Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
  • Tingling, burning, or "skin-crawling" sensations
  • Tremor

Benzodiazepine Drug Interactions

Not only can they cause dependence, but there are also many substances that can interact with benzodiazepines and cause accidental overdose or even death.

Alcohol and opioid pain relievers, both of which also act as central nervous system depressants, can greatly magnify the effect of benzodiazepines. Together, these drugs may slow your respiration and heart function to a point where they may stop altogether.

Because of this potentially life-threatening result, benzodiazepines should not be taken with alcohol, opioid drugs, or any other benzodiazepine, unless your doctor has decided that the benefits outweigh the risks in your particular situation.

Be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications, vitamins, supplements, and herbal products you're taking before you start on a benzodiazepine. Some of these can also cause serious interactions. Your doctor may need to change your dose or closely monitor you while taking a benzodiazepine.

Some of the other medications and herbs that can cause interactions with benzos include:

  • Antidepressants
  • Antihistamines
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Certain antifungals
  • Certain antibiotics
  • Opioid cough medicine
  • Other sedatives
  • St. John's Wort

Benzodiazepine Overdose

Potential symptoms of a benzodiazepine overdose include:

  • Altered mental status
  • Coma
  • Drowsiness
  • Problems balancing, walking, or swallowing
  • Slurred speech
  • Trouble breathing, especially if another substance was taken with benzodiazepines

If you think someone has overdosed on benzodiazepines, call the Poison Control hotline at 1-800-222-1222 or visit their website for help. However, if the person has fallen down, is having seizures, can't breathe without difficulty, or is unconscious, call 911 to get immediate emergency help.

Precautions When Taking Benzodiazepines

There are circumstances and conditions in which the use of benzodiazepines should be carefully considered or even avoided. Among them include:

  • Pregnancy: Benzodiazepines may cause harm to an unborn baby. Let your doctor know if you're pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or if you get pregnant while taking benzodiazepines.
  • Breastfeeding: Benzodiazepines do cross over into breast milk and can cause symptoms in your baby, so they should be avoided if possible when you're breastfeeding.
  • Elderly: For anyone 65 years or older, benzodiazepines should be used cautiously and in lower doses due to the increased risk of dependence and sensitivity to drug side effects like memory loss, impaired coordination, and loss of cognition.
  • Respiratory conditions: If you have an underlying respiratory disorder, you shouldn't use benzos as they may impair your breathing, sometimes critically. Examples of respiratory conditions include bronchitis, sleep apnea, myasthenia gravis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).
  • Depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): If you've been diagnosed with depression or PTSD, you need to be aware that using benzodiazepines can create an increased risk of self-harm and suicide, as well as drastic mood changes.

If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911.

For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database.

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Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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By Marcia Purse
Marcia Purse is a mental health writer and bipolar disorder advocate who brings strong research skills and personal experiences to her writing.