Mental Health A-Z The Dangerous Effects of Toxic Masculinity By Sarah Sheppard Updated on January 02, 2023 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Carly Snyder, MD Medically reviewed by Carly Snyder, MD Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Carly Snyder, MD is a reproductive and perinatal psychiatrist who combines traditional psychiatry with integrative medicine-based treatments. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Tim Tadder / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Traditional Gender Roles and Toxic Masculinity Effects of Toxic Masculinity Mental Health Effects of Toxic Masculinity Combatting Toxic Masculinity Toxic masculinity is a concept used to define unhealthy and often traditional characteristics or attributes associated with men. From being unemotional and power-hungry to narcissistic and violent, men are often defined by these outdated and unfounded stereotypes, which create an unhealthy and unrealistic understanding of what it means to be a man in today’s society. Assuming men should be protectors, breadwinners, or leaders, or associating men with anger, selfishness, and aggression can be problematic and damaging. When those beliefs are based on unproven biases that we, as both individuals and a society, perpetuate, boys and men are taught to believe them falsely or to try to measure up to them, ultimately harming themselves and others in the process. Traditional Gender Roles and Toxic Masculinity In many ways, “manhood,” like “womanhood,” comes with many expectations in the United States. As a society, we value kindness, compassion, and care in women more than we do in men. We also positively associate men with being protective and negatively associate men with being emotional, according to the Pew Research Center. This does not mean that men aren’t caring, compassionate, or emotional, but we, as a society, don’t value these traits in men and that can lead men to believe these traits aren’t valuable. Ron Blake, Social Justice Activist, Public Speaker Men tend to keep so much bottled up inside. This includes all the traumas and heart-breaking moments. Eventually there has to be a release. And too often that is in an explosive way. — Ron Blake, Social Justice Activist, Public Speaker “Fragile masculinity,” a term referring to the unrealistic cultural standards placed on men, exists because many men feel they have to overcompensate or act in a certain way to meet these traditional standards, but we are all human. As human beings, regardless of gender, we have a combination of masculine and feminine traits. Gender Schema Theory and Roles in Culture While feminism has pushed America to redefine and reconsider the role of girls and women, it has also raised questions about boys and men, and what their role is in society. Rather than defining boys or men as “good” or “bad,” or “tough” or “weak,” it’s important to recognize that men, like women, have many facets that extend far beyond the traditional roles of their gender. Traditional societal views of masculinity have a negative impact on every member of society, but studies show they have a greater impact on the self-image, relationships, and overall mental health of gay men. What our society needs to remember is that being a man doesn’t mean you have to like sports or women. Being a strong man doesn’t mean you can’t show weakness or cry. Being a successful man doesn’t mean you have to marry or become a c-suite executive. Sexual preferences and gender identities, just like career choices and lifestyle choices, don’t make you any less of a man. “The truth is being a man can mean whatever you want it to mean,” says Britt East, author of A Gay Man's Guide to Life. “You get to decide.” Why Can't I Cry Even Though I'm Sad? Effects of Toxic Masculinity When men actively avoid vulnerability, act on homophobic beliefs, ignore personal traumas, or exhibit prejudice behaviors against women, this contributes to many larger societal problems. Effects of toxic masculinity: Domestic abuse Gender-based violenceGun violenceHomophobiaMisogynyRape cultureSexual assault Violence and Aggression “Masculinity becomes fragile through its rigidity. When it cannot afford to hold the panoply of gender expressions, sexual cultural orientations, or feminine strength intrinsic to any pluralistic society, then it must lash out, or risk crumbling under the weight of its own culturally-constituted expectations,” says East. “Whatever the cause, the response is [almost] always a form of violence…Sometimes this violence is outwardly expressed through physical dominance or aggression. Other times it is inwardly expressed, through depression, addiction, or suicide,” East writes. Men are perceived as more violent than women and as evidenced by the crime rates, they are. Most criminal offenses are committed by men, and most crimes (with the exception of sexual assault) are committed against men. Sexual Assault and Sexual Violence Though men are often the perpetrators of sexual assault, we often forget that millions of men in this country have also been victims of sexual assault. Male violence is a problem, but so is male victimization. Statistically, 5-10% of girls are subjected to penetrative sexual abuse, but 5% of boys are also subjected to penetrative sexual abuse and this is rarely discussed. When men and women are accused of similar crimes, men are more likely to receive longer sentences than women, with women being twice as likely to avoid incarceration upon conviction. “Every behavior is connected to a need,” says Mack Exilus, MA, EDM, MHC-LP, a mental health clinician at Citron Hennessey Therapy. “One thing I’ve seen with men with anger issues and violent paths is that these are behaviors that are learned. A lot of times that violence or that anger is a way to protect vulnerability.” Understanding Anger Inability to Express Vulnerability Unfortunately, many men aren’t taught how to be vulnerable, how to overcome trauma, or how to embrace every aspect of themselves. Take Aaron Hernandez, for instance, who battled numerous traumas in his childhood, and ultimately grew up to become a professional football player and larger-than-life man. He ended up in prison, was convicted of murder, and ultimately committed suicide. “He had been asking for help for so long on so many occasions,” says Blake. “I feel like part of my role in life is to help the world know Aaron was a good guy. We all failed him in life.” Society often puts pressure on men to “be men” in the traditional sense, rather than simply be human. For men, vulnerability is often neglected, dismissed, or combated. When men push down emotions, ignore feelings, or dismiss their feminine traits, their mental health will suffer. Mental Health Effects of Toxic Masculinity The mental health effects of toxic masculinity can include: AnxietyDepressionHigher risk for suicideIncrease lonelinessIncreased risky behaviorIncreased substance and alcohol use As of 2018, significantly more men than women died from an opioid overdose. Men are far more likely to die by suicide than women. Men, like women, experience anxiety, depression, and mental illness. However, men are more likely than women to underutilize mental health services and are more reluctant to seek help, especially regarding mental health. As a country, we often fail to address the many traumas faced by boys and men and we often punish behaviors without addressing the underlying issues that lead to those behaviors. We need to eliminate the stigma around mental illness and remind men that asking for help, expressing emotions, and seeking therapy isn’t just beneficial, it’s necessary for the betterment of our society. “Most men are simply in survival mode,” says Dan Doty, co-founder of EVRYMAN. Combatting Toxic Masculinity When Michael Kimmel, the founder and director of the Center for the Study of Men and Masculinities at Stony Brook University, asked his students what it means to be a “real man,” he received answers like “authoritative,” and “suppressing any kind of weakness.” BIPOC Boys and Men Traditionally, boys are taught to “act like men,” and in many cases, treated like men, which can greatly impact their understanding of themselves and their place in the world. For Black boys, in particular, the expectations and misconceptions can be dangerous. Studies have shown that Black children are seen as less “childlike” than white children and are often perceived as being older than they are. Exilus points out that minority men, in particular, have to do a lot more work every day. They need space, time to rest, and the opportunity to share and/or express their anger. Whether you join group therapy, or individual therapy, or visit an organization like Black Men Heal, the goal is to better understand yourself and your emotions and prioritize your mental well-being. Press Play for Advice on Undefining Masculinity Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast shares the value of undefining what it means to be a man, featuring author and actor Justin Baldoni. Click below to listen now. Follow Now: Apple Podcasts / Spotify / Google Podcasts Boys Should Learn That Emotions Are Healthy When we treat boys as men and teach them to be emotionless, tough, and secure, we strip them of their innocence and we place unrealistic and unhealthy expectations on them. “We need to teach young men from an early age that it’s good to express emotions,” says Exilus. In both our education system and at home, we need to help boys and men label their feelings and understand them. By approaching this in a non-judgmental, curious way, we can eliminate the fears surrounding therapy and mental health. “Boys and young men are, by nature, in great need of guidance,” says Doty. “We need men to be role models for the new generation. It all starts with teaching boys to not be men, but to be humans,” says Blake. “This should not be a gender issue. Once we make this a human issue, toxic masculinity will fade.” Meditation Tips and Potential Benefits for Men Boys Must Be Taught How to Deal With Negative Feelings “Anger is judged upon. Bottling it up doesn’t do anything,” says Exilus. We need to offer men ways to deal with that anger. Exilus recommends focusing on five sensations and counting down if you’re feeling angry or frustrated. Focus on five things you can hear, four things you can see, three things you can smell, two things you can touch, one thing you can taste. Mack Exilus, MA, EDM, MHC-LP This gets you out of your head, into your body, and tuned into your environment. Sit with the breath and be wherever you are without having to drain yourself of energy. You can also take a nap, go for a run, drink some tea, or splash cold water on your face. — Mack Exilus, MA, EDM, MHC-LP Heavy Consumption of Reality TV May Reinforce Gender Roles for Adolescents A Word From Verywell Toxic masculinity is something that still needs to be addressed and the only way to help men learn that emotions don't devalue them or make them weak is by instilling that mindset within them from a young age. The dangers of toxic masculinity are clear and, as a society, it's important to remember that everyone is human and finding healthy ways to process emotions is important for all us, especially men. Also, if you're struggling with the mental health effects of toxic masculinity or you need someone to express your emotions to, there is no shame in reaching out for help from a mental health professional. Male Gender Role Stress and PTSD 9 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Walker K, Bialik K, van Kessel P. Strong men, caring women: How Americans describe what society values (and doesn’t) in each gender. Pew Research Center. Sánchez FJ, Greenberg ST, Liu WM, Vilain E. Reported Effects of Masculine Ideals on Gay Men. Psychol Men Masc. 2009;10(1):73-87. doi:10.1037/a0013513 East B. A Gay Man’s Guide to Life: Get Real, Stand Tall, and Take Your Place. Houndstooth Press; 2020. U.S Department of Justice. Criminal Victimization, 2018. Starr SB. Law & Economics Working Papers. Estimating Gender Disparities in Federal Criminal Cases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About Multiple Cause of Death, 1999-2018. 2018. Ogrodniczuk J, Oliffe J, Kuhl D, Gross PA. Men's mental health: Spaces and places that work for men. Can Fam Physician. 2016;62(6):463-464. Bennett J. A Master's Degree in ... Masculinity?. The New York Times.. Goff PA, Jackson MC, Di Leone BAL, Culotta CM, DiTomasso NA. The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing Black children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2014;106(4), 526-545. By Sarah Sheppard Sarah Sheppard is a writer, editor, ghostwriter, writing instructor, and advocate for mental health, women's issues, and more. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.