Brain Health The Debate Over Repressed and Recovered Memories How Memory Works By Leonard Holmes, PhD Leonard Holmes, PhD LinkedIn Leonard Holmes, PhD, is a pioneer of the online therapy field and a clinical psychologist specializing in chronic pain and anxiety. Learn about our editorial process Updated on November 29, 2020 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, FAAN Medically reviewed by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, FAAN Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, is an award-winning physician-scientist and clinical development specialist. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Jan Hakan Dahlstrom / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Forgotten Trauma How Memory Works Debate Over Memories There is still a fairly heated controversy in the field of psychology about whether or not repressed memories can or should be recovered, as well as whether or not they are accurate. The clearest divide appears to be between mental health practitioners and researchers. In one study, clinicians had a much greater tendency to believe that people repress memories that can be recovered in therapy than the researchers did. The general public, too, has a belief in repressed memory. Clearly, more research is needed in the area of memory. Trauma Can Be Forgotten Most people remember the bad things that happen to them, but sometimes extreme trauma is forgotten. Scientists are studying this, and we are beginning to understand how this occurs. When this forgetting becomes extreme, a dissociative disorder sometimes develops, such as dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. These disorders and their relationship to trauma are still being studied. Childhood Trauma and Dissociation How Memory Works Memory is not like a tape recorder. The brain processes information and stores it in different ways. Most of us have had some mildly traumatic experiences, and these experiences sometimes seem to be burned into our brains with a high degree of detail. Scientists are studying the relationship between two parts of the brain, the amygdala and the hippocampus, to understand why this is. Here's what we know at this time: Moderate trauma can enhance long-term memory. This is the common-sense experience that most of us have, and it makes it difficult to understand how the memory of horrible events can be forgotten. Extreme trauma can disrupt long-term storage and leave memories stored as emotions or sensations rather than as memories. Research suggests that it can take up to several days to fully store an event in long-term memory. Sensory triggers in the present can cause forgotten material to surface. This is because the material is associated with the trigger through a process known as "state-dependent memory, learning, and behavior." "False memories" of mildly traumatic events have been created in the laboratory. It is unclear to what extent this occurs in other settings. Studies have documented that people who live through extreme trauma sometimes forget the trauma. The memory of the trauma can return later in life, usually beginning in the form of sensations or emotions, sometimes involving "flashbacks" during which the person feels like they are reliving the memory. This material gradually becomes more integrated until it resembles other memories. Debate Over Recovered Memories Are recovered memories necessarily true? There is much debate surrounding this question. Some therapists who work with trauma survivors believe that the memories are true because they are accompanied by such extreme emotions. Other therapists have reported that some of their patients have recovered memories that could not have been true (a memory of being decapitated, for example). Some groups have claimed that therapists are "implanting memories" or causing false memories in vulnerable patients by suggesting that they are victims of abuse when no abuse occurred. Some therapists do seem to have persuaded patients that their symptoms were due to abuse when they did not know this to be true. This was never considered good therapeutic practice, and most therapists are careful not to suggest a cause for a symptom unless the patient reports the cause. There is some research suggesting that false memories for mild trauma can be created in the laboratory. In one study, suggestions were made that children had been lost in a shopping mall. Many of the children later came to believe that this was a real memory. It is important to note that it is not ethical to suggest memories of severe trauma in a laboratory setting. False Memories and the Misinformation Effect 8 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Patihis L, Ho LY, Tingen IW, Lilienfeld SO, Loftus EF. Are the "memory wars" over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory. Psychol Sci. 2014;25(2):519–530. doi:10.1177/0956797613510718 National Alliance on Mental Illness. Dissociative disorders. van Marle H. PTSD as a memory disorder. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2015;6:10.3402/ejpt.v6.27633. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v6.27633 Davis RL, Zhong Y. The biology of forgetting: A perspective. Neuron. 2017;95(3):490–503. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2017.05.039 Radulovic J, Lee R, Ortony A. State-dependent memory: Neurobiological advances and prospects for translation to dissociative amnesia. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018;12:259. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00259 Strange D, Takarangi MK. False memories for missing aspects of traumatic events. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2012;141(3):322–326. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.08.005 Brewin CR. Memory and forgetting. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018;20(10):87. doi:10.1007/s11920-018-0950-7 Crook LS, McEwen LE. Deconstructing the lost in the mall study. J Child Custody. 2019;16(1):719, doi:10.1080/15379418.2019.1601603 Additional Reading APS. Scientists and Practitioners Don't See Eye to Eye on Repressed Memory. International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation. Dissociation FAQs. By Leonard Holmes, PhD Leonard Holmes, PhD, is a pioneer of the online therapy field and a clinical psychologist specializing in chronic pain and anxiety. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.