The Interpretation of Dreams by Sigmund Freud

German title page for The Interpretation of Dreams
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

"The Interpretation of Dreams" was a book written by the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud and published in 1899. As one of Freud's earliest books, the theories, ideas, and case studies described within "The Interpretation of Dreams" helped set the stage for psychoanalytic theory.

The book is notable because it introduced many of Freud's best-known ideas, including the notion of the unconscious mind and how it relates to the interpretation of dreams. Freud also published an abridged version of the text titled "On Dreams."

This article discusses why "The Interpretation of Dreams" is important and some of the criticisms of the text. It also covers the history of the book and the impact that it had on the field of psychology.

Why 'The Interpretation of Dreams' Is Important

"The Interpretation of Dreams" is the classic text on dream analysis and interpretation. In it, Freud introduces many key concepts that would later become central to the theory of psychoanalysis. The book also emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, which is one of the underlying principles of Freudian psychology.

If you want to understand the foundations of psychoanalysis and explore Freud's theories in greater depth, then "The Interpretation of Dreams" is essential reading.

The book is widely regarded as one of Freud's most important publications. If you are interested in Sigmund Freud, the origins of psychoanalysis, or dream interpretation, this is a must-have text for your collection.

For those interested in dream research, "The Interpretation of Dreams" serves as an excellent introduction to many of Freud's major ideas. The book outlines his belief that dreams are highly symbolic, containing both overt meanings, called manifest content, and underlying, unconscious thoughts, known as latent content. Dreams, he suggested, are our unconscious wishes in disguise.

The History Behind the Book

When Freud started analyzing himself, he used his dreams quite frequently in the process. Always a vivid dreamer, Freud had by this time also noticed the impact of dreams on his patients, including psychotic patients whose hallucinations were similar to dreams.

Between his own experience and that of his patients, Freud concluded that dreams are almost always expressions of unfulfilled wishes.

Believing sincerely in the importance of dreams and realizing no one had written much, if anything, about the subject, Freud spent two years writing "The Interpretation of Dreams." Originally published in German under the title Die Traumdeutung in 1900, initial sales of the book were slow and disappointing. It was largely ignored by the scientific community.

By 1910, Freud's other work was becoming well-known, and so "The Interpretation of Dreams" became more popular. It was translated into English and Russian in 1913 and six more languages by 1938. Seven more editions were also printed during his lifetime.


Freud based many of his ideas on his observations of his own dreams as well of those of his patients. Reaction to "The Interpretation of Dreams" was initially poor, but the book eventually grew in popularity.

Historical Significance

Freud was an incredibly prolific writer, publishing more than 320 different books, articles, and essays. Out of this impressive body of work, Freud described "The Interpretation of Dreams" as his personal favorite as well as his most significant contribution to the understanding of human thought.

"[It] contains… the most valuable of all the discoveries it has been my good fortune to make. Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime," he explained.

"The Interpretation of Dreams" stands as a unique and classic work in the history of psychology. No matter what you may think of Sigmund Freud’s psychological theories, the cultural impact and historical importance of this book are without question.

Praise and Criticism

Freud's book left an important mark on psychology, but not all of his ideas were accepted, both then and now.

Praise for 'The Interpretation of Dreams'

Without a doubt, "The Interpretation of Dreams" is an important book. While not all of the ideas in the book have fared well, it is an interesting read for both laypersons and psychology professionals because Freud's writing is both engaging and intriguing. The case studies he describes in the book also offer an interesting glimpse into his work as a psychoanalyst.


However, there is a notable lack of scientific rigor throughout the book. Many of Freud's conclusions lack empirical support.

Many of Freud's ideas have not been substantiated by current research and aspects of his psychoanalytic theories have not fared well over time.

For example, Freud believed that dreams were a way to gain insight in the workings of the unconscious mind. However, researchers have found that the content of dreams is most often simply a reflection of waking life. People often dream about things that are on their minds, which is a reflection of conscious thoughts rather than unconscious thoughts.

In "The Interpretation of Dreams," Freud also suggested that dreams were a form of wish fulfillment. The problem is that some dreams focus on difficult topics such as trauma, punishment, or anxiety. While Freud suggested that such dreams were a way to cope with the problem rather than wish fulfillment, such dreams are more often a reflection of worries or memories than a way of coping.

While Freud believed that dreams were primarily about wish fulfillment and expressions of the unconscious, researchers today believe that dreams serve to consolidate memory and learning. The often fragmented and confusing content of dreams may be the brain's way of incorporating new information and experiences into long-term memory.


Modern research does not necessarily agree that the primary function of dreams is to reveal the contents of the unconscious. Instead, researchers believe that dreams may serve an important role in the consolidation of memory.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • When was "The Interpretation of Dreams" published?

    "The Interpretation of Dreams" was published in 1899, although it wasn't officially released until 1900. The initial printing of 600 copies took eight years to sell out. An additional seven editions were published during Freud's lifetime as the book grew in popularity.

  • What part of the brain is responsible for dreams and dreaming?

    The hippocampus, a structure located inside of the brain's temporal lobe, plays an important role in the process of dreaming. The hippocampus is also connected to memory and imagination.

  • How accurate is "The Interpretation of Dreams" today?

    Freud believed that the content of dreams could play an important role in understanding mental health problems. There is not a great deal of evidence to support the idea that understanding dreams might improve mental health.

    However, some research does suggest that dreams might be a helpful way to gauge mental well-being. One study found that people who had symptoms of anxiety were more likely to experience negative emotions in dreams.

A Word From Verywell

Despite Freud’s tendency to over-generalize, his lack of scientific evidence, his overemphasis on sex, and his frequently chauvinistic viewpoints, this seminal work remains important in the history of psychology. "The Interpretation of Dreams" marked the beginning of ​psychoanalysis and is a fascinating text revealing Freud’s unique talent as a writer and ambitious theorist.

6 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Grubin D. Young Dr. Freud. Public Broadcasting Service.

  2. PBS. Freud's book, "The Interpretation of Dreams," released 1900. People and Discoveries.

  3. Zhang W, Guo B. Freud's dream interpretation: A different perspective based on the self-organization theory of dreamingFront Psychol. 2018;9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01553

  4. Freud Museum London. The Interpretation of Dreams: A guide to Sigmund Freud's theory of dreams and his method for dream interpretation.

  5. Dallas Baptist University. Freud. Bibliography (full).

  6. Wamsley EJ. How the brain constructs dreamsElife. 2020;9:e58874. doi:10.7554/eLife.58874

By Kendra Cherry
Kendra Cherry, MS, is the author of the "Everything Psychology Book (2nd Edition)" and has written thousands of articles on diverse psychology topics. Kendra holds a Master of Science degree in education from Boise State University with a primary research interest in educational psychology and a Bachelor of Science in psychology from Idaho State University with additional coursework in substance use and case management.