Depression Childhood Depression How Depression in Children Is Treated What Parents Should Know About Childhood Depression By Lauren DiMaria Lauren DiMaria LinkedIn Lauren DiMaria is a member of the Society of Clinical Research Associates and childhood psychology expert. Learn about our editorial process Updated on September 17, 2020 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Carly Snyder, MD Medically reviewed by Carly Snyder, MD Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Carly Snyder, MD is a reproductive and perinatal psychiatrist who combines traditional psychiatry with integrative medicine-based treatments. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Verywell / Ellen Lindner Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Psychotherapy Medication Lifestyle Alternative Medicine When your child is diagnosed with depression, it can be a frightening time for the whole family. Deciding whether to start your child on medication to manage depression can be additionally confusing. However, with serious short- and long-term consequences of depression—such as poor social development, substance misuse, poor academic performance, and suicidal thoughts and behavior—it is important to find a safe and effective treatment for your child. Knowing the risks and benefits of medications and what to watch out for can help you make a confident decision for your child. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 3% of all children are diagnosed with depression. The majority of children receiving treatment experience a decrease in their symptoms within two months. It is recommended that children receive prompt treatment because of the potential for serious consequences of untreated depression. Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is an effective treatment for children with depression. While it’s often called "talk therapy," it involves much more than a child and psychotherapist sitting in a room talking. Common psychotherapy formats can include individual therapy, group therapy, and family therapy. Psychotherapists also use a combination of approaches that include: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT): Helps children understand ways in which they use their words to battle whatever is going on inside of their heads Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): Teaches children to understand harmful thought patterns and feelings that influence behaviors Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): Helps children learn to live in the moment, better cope with stress, regulate emotions, and improve relationships Interpersonal therapy (IPT): Focuses on interpersonal interactions and problematic relationships and how they affect the child’s emotional state Mentalization based therapy (MBT): Focuses on the child’s ability to recognize thoughts, feelings, wishes, and desires and how they are linked to behavior Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT): Real-time coaching sessions during which parents and children interact and therapist guides them toward positive interactions Play therapy: Using toys, blocks, dolls, puppets, drawings, and games to help the child recognize, identify, and verbalize feelings Psychodynamic psychotherapy: Helps identify typical behavior patterns, defenses, and responses to inner conflicts and struggles Supportive therapy: Offers support to manage stress, improve self-esteem, and pinpoint helpful and unhelpful behaviors The 7 Best Online Therapy Programs for Kids Choosing a Therapist for Your Child The best way to find a good therapist is often via a recommendation from another parent or from your pediatrician. If you feel like things aren’t working or that your child is not clicking with the therapist, it’s well within your rights to "interview" a new therapist. Medication The type and severity of your child's depression play a role in whether or not medication is appropriate. For bipolar depression and moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD), medication is typically indicated, as is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. For milder cases of depression, like grief reactions due to loss or a stressful life event, counseling and family support may be sufficient. Prozac (fluoxetine), an antidepressant, combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for childhood depression. Research has found that fluoxetine combined with CBT is more effective than just medication or therapy alone. The use of an SSRI like prozac alone is not advised to treat bipolar depression as it can cause deleterious effects including flipping into mania. A combined treatment program may be the best treatment option for your child. Approved Antidepressants One serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor has an FDA-approved indication in pediatric patients: duloxetine. Four of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have FDA-approved indications in pediatric patients: escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline. Two of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have FDA-approved indications in pediatric patients: clomipramine and imipramine. Fluoxetine and escitalopram are both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase the amount of serotonin in the body. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter (a chemical affecting brain functions) that is decreased in people with depression. Research comparing fluoxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram to placebo showed that these treatments were more effective than placebo. First-Line Treatment Recommendations Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy along with medications are the recommended first-line treatments for childhood depression. It is also recommended that treatment continues for a minimum of six months. Should Children Take Antidepressants? Warnings and Adverse Effects In 2004, the FDA released a warning that antidepressant use in children may put them at an increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior. However, the NIMH released a statement that the benefits of SSRI use in depressed children likely outweigh any risks. Additionally, the FDA explains that depression itself puts a child at an increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior. If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. SSRI medications have the potential to cause manic episodes in some children (and adults) with mood disorders, a state involving elevated, irritable, or cycling moods. As such, it is important to monitor children for these symptoms. Common adverse effects of SSRIs are headaches, nausea, sleep problems, and jitters. Adverse effects of tricyclic drugs may be dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, low blood pressure and heart rate changes. Any unusual or worsening adverse effects should immediately be discussed with your child's physician. Following the prescribed treatment plan is essential. Medication should only be taken as directed and never stopped without medical advice. The FDA's Black Box Warning for Antidepressants How to Make Your Treatment the Most Effective It may take a few weeks of medication use there to be signs of improvement and 6 to 8 weeks for full impact. Chronic use of medication may not be necessary. Children on medication for depression should be closely monitored for improvement, adverse effects, and increased suicidal thoughts and behavior. You should expect to take an active role in your child's medication regimen. Explaining to your child exactly what the medication is for and how it may affect them may relieve some anxiety. Developing a medication routine and incorporating something enjoyable may decrease resistance. Communicating with your child's health care provider is also important. If appropriate, involving your child's teachers or additional caregivers can help in providing a supportive and collaborative recovery effort. Lifestyle Support and lifestyle changes can also help children find relief from symptoms of depression. Parents can help their children by encouraging them to make healthy choices and making sure that kids are getting the proper diet, sleep, and exercise. Healthy behaviors that can help with depression include: Eating a Healthy, Nutritious Diet Diet can have an impact on physical and mental well-being, so it's important to ensure that your child is eating healthy and complete meals. Reduce or eliminate sugary snacks and drinks and focus on your child eating plenty of veggies, fruits, complex carbohydrates, and lean proteins. Getting Enough Sleep Poor sleep quality and quantity can be a symptom of depression, but it can also exacerbate symptoms. Make sure that your child has the opportunity to get a good night's rest by establishing and maintaining a consistent bedtime and creating good nighttime routines. Researchers recommend that children use their bed only for sleep, they go to bed only when tired, and get up at the same time each morning. Things that may interfere with sleep, such as a phone or TV, should be restricted or removed from the room where a child sleeps. Regular Exercise Research has found that regular physical activity can be effective in both preventing and relieving symptoms of depression. A 2018 study published in The American Journal of Psychiatry found that just one hour of exercise each week could be effective for preventing future depression. You can help your child by encouraging them to be more active each day. Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) While some research on adults has shown the herbal supplement St. John's wort may be effective in treating depression, there is not enough evidence supporting its use in children. The limited research available shows mixed results, with some studies finding no positive effects and others showing small benefits. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine states that there is not yet enough research to recommend St. John's wort as an effective treatment for childhood depression. St. John's Wort's for Childhood Depression A Word From Verywell Childhood depression can be a serious problem that can affect a child's ability to function in many different areas of life. Fortunately, appropriate treatment can help kids cope with their symptoms and live a normal life. The best treatment for your child depends upon their symptoms and the recommendations made by your child's pediatrician, psychiatrist, or therapist, but often a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and lifestyle changes can be an effective choice. 7 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Davey CG, Chanen AM, Cotton SM, et al. The addition of fluoxetine to cognitive behavioural therapy for youth depression (YoDA-C): study protocol for a randomised control trial. Trials. 2014;15:425. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-425 Cipriani A, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants for major depressive disorder: A network meta-analysis. Lancet. 2016; 388(10047):881-90. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30385-3 Clark MS, Jansen KL, Cloy A. Treatment of childhood and adolescent depression. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(5):442-448. Clarke G, Harvey AG. The complex role of sleep in adolescent depression. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2012;21(2):385-400. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2012.01.006 Blake H. Physical activity and exercise in the treatment of depression. Front Psychiatry. 2012;3:106. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00106 Harvey SB, Øverland S, Hatch SL, Wessely S, Mykletun A, Hotopf M. Exercise and the prevention of depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175(1):28-36. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16111223 National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. St. John’s Wort and Depression: In Depth. Additional Reading Mullen S. Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Ment Health Clin. 2018;8(6):275-283. doi:10.9740/mhc.2018.11.275 Williams SB, O'Connor EA, Eder M, Whitlock EP. Screening for child and adolescent depression in primary care settings: A systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics. 2009;123(4):e716-35. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2415 By Lauren DiMaria Lauren DiMaria is a member of the Society of Clinical Research Associates and childhood psychology expert. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist for Depression Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.