PTSD in Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

American soldier with problems
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anger are common in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. In fact, Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans are at risk for a number of mental health problems. Studies have consistently shown that veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars exhibit high rates of PTSD, depression, and substance use disorders.

Anger Problems in Veterans

A group of researchers looked at rates of PTSD and anger problems among a group of 117 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans.

Similar to other reports, the veterans they studied exhibited high rates of PTSD. In fact, about 40 percent had PTSD and an additional 18% had what is often referred to as subthreshold PTSD (they were struggling with some severe symptoms of PTSD but not quite enough symptoms to meet criteria for a full PTSD diagnosis).

In addition, over half of the veterans with PTSD indicated that they had been aggressive in the past four months, such as threatening physical violence, destroying property, or having a physical fight with someone. Veterans experiencing subthreshold PTSD reported just about the same amount of aggressive behavior as the veterans diagnosed with PTSD.

Veterans with PTSD and those with subthreshold PTSD were much more likely to be aggressive than those veterans without PTSD.

Individuals with PTSD may have intense and unpredictable emotional experiences, and anger and aggressive behavior may be ways of establishing a sense of control.

Anger may also be a way of trying to express or release tension connected to uncomfortable emotions often associated with PTSD, such as shame and guilt.

Dealing With Anger

Individuals with PTSD may be more likely to have problems controlling anger, and this study shows that problems with anger may occur soon after returning from combat.

Anger can be a very difficult emotion to deal with and can lead to a number of legal and interpersonal problems, such as domestic violence.

In fact, individuals with PTSD are particularly at risk for the perpetration of relationship violence.

There are, however, a number of ways to manage anger. First, addressing symptoms of PTSD through therapy may also help reduce feelings of anger. Many treatments for PTSD even incorporate anger management skills.

Learning more effective ways of coping with stress may also be helpful in managing anger and aggressive behavior. Some coping skills that may be particularly helpful are deep breathing, mindfulness, taking "time-outs," and identifying the short- and long-term negative and positive consequences of different behaviors.

The National Center for PTSD also provides some excellent information on the relationship between PTSD and anger, as well as a number of suggestions on how to better manage anger and aggressive behavior.

6 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Cook JM, Dinnen S, O'Donnell C, Bernardy N, Rosenheck R, Hoff R. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: National findings from VA residential treatment programsPsychiatry. 2013;76(1):18–31. doi:10.1521/psyc.2013.76.1.18

  2. Jakupcak M, Conybeare D, Phelps L, et al. Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSDJ Trauma Stress. 2007;20(6):945–954. doi:10.1002/jts.20258

  3. Tull MT, Jakupcak M, Paulson A, Gratz KL. The role of emotional inexpressivity and experiential avoidance in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and aggressive behavior among men exposed to interpersonal violenceAnxiety Stress Coping. 2007;20(4):337–351. doi:10.1080/10615800701379249

  4. Misca G, Forgey MA. The role of PTSD in bi-directional intimate partner violence in military and veteran populations: A research reviewFront Psychol. 2017;8:1394. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01394

  5. Cash R, Varker T, McHugh T, et al. Effectiveness of an anger intervention for military members with PTSD: A clinical case seriesMil Med. 2018;183(9-10):e286–e290. doi:10.1093/milmed/usx115

  6. Kim SH, Schneider SM, Kravitz L, Mermier C, Burge MR. Mind-body practices for posttraumatic stress disorderJ Investig Med. 2013;61(5):827–834. doi:10.2310/JIM.0b013e3182906862

Additional Reading
  • Erbes, C., Westermeyer, J., Engdahl, B., & Johnsen, E. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and service utilization in a sample of service members from Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 172, 359-363.

  • Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I., & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan: mental health problems and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22.

By Matthew Tull, PhD
Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder.