Types of Variables in Psychology Research

Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables

Two researchers discussing study results
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Variables in psychology are things that can be changed or altered, such as a characteristic or value. Variables are generally used in psychology experiments to determine if changes to one thing result in changes to another.

Variables in psychology play a critical role in the research process. By systematically changing some variables in an experiment and measuring what happens as a result, researchers are able to learn more about cause-and-effect relationships.

The two main types of variables in psychology are the independent variable and the dependent variable. Both variables are important in the process of collecting data about psychological phenomena.

This article discusses different types of variables that are used in psychology research. It also covers how to operationalize these variables when conducting experiments.

Dependent and Independent Variables

Students often report problems with identifying the independent and dependent variables in an experiment. While this task can become more difficult as the complexity of an experiment increases, in a psychology experiment:

  • The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter. An example of an independent variable in psychology: In an experiment on the impact of sleep deprivation on test performance, sleep deprivation would be the independent variable. The experimenters would have some of the study participants be sleep-deprived while others would be fully rested.
  • The dependent variable is the variable that is measured by the experimenter. In the previous example, the scores on the test performance measure would be the dependent variable.

So how do you differentiate between the independent and dependent variables? Start by asking yourself what the experimenter is manipulating. The things that change, either naturally or through direct manipulation from the experimenter, are generally the independent variables. What is being measured? The dependent variable is the one that the experimenter is measuring.

Intervening Variables in Psychology

Intervening variables, also sometimes called intermediate or mediator variables, are factors that play a role in the relationship between two other variables. In the previous example, sleep problems in university students are often influenced by factors such as stress.As a result, stress might be an intervening variable that plays a role in how much sleep people get, which may then influence how well they perform on exams.

Extraneous Variables in Psychology

Independent and dependent variables are not the only variables present in many experiments. In some cases, extraneous variables may also play a role. This type of variable is one that may have an impact on the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

For example, in our previous example of an experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation on test performance, other factors such as age, gender, and academic background may have an impact on the results. In such cases, the experimenter will note the values of these extraneous variables so any impact can be controlled for.

There are two basic types of extraneous variables:

  • Participant variables: These extraneous variables are related to the individual characteristics of each study participant that may impact how they respond. These factors can include background differences, mood, anxiety, intelligence, awareness, and other characteristics that are unique to each person.
  • Situational variables: These extraneous variables are related to things in the environment that may impact how each participant responds. For example, if a participant is taking a test in a chilly room, the temperature would be considered an extraneous variable. Some participants may not be affected by the cold, but others might be distracted or annoyed by the temperature of the room.

Other extraneous variables include the following:

  • Demand characteristics: Clues in the environment that suggest how a participant should behave
  • Experimenter effects: When a researcher unintentionally suggests clues for how a participant should behave

Controlled Variables in Psychology

In many cases, extraneous variables are controlled for by the experimenter. A controlled variable is one that is held constant throughout an experiment.

In the case of participant variables, the experiment might select participants that are the same in background and temperament to ensure that these factors don't interfere with the results. Holding these variables constant is important for an experiment because it allows researchers to be sure that all other variables remain the same across all conditions.  

Using controlled variables means that when changes occur, the researchers can be sure that these changes are due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not caused by changes in other variables.

It is important to also note that a controlled variable is not the same thing as a control group. The control group in a study is the group of participants who do not receive the treatment or change in the independent variable.

All other variables between the control group and experimental group are held constant (i.e., they are controlled). The dependent variable being measured is then compared between the control group and experimental group to see what changes occurred because of the treatment.

Confounding Variables in Psychology

If a variable cannot be controlled for, it becomes what is known as a confounding variable. This type of variable can have an impact on the dependent variable, which can make it difficult to determine if the results are due to the influence of the independent variable, the confounding variable, or an interaction of the two.

Operationalizing Variables in Psychology

An operational definition describes how the variables are measured and defined in the study. Before conducting a psychology experiment, it is essential to create firm operational definitions for both the independent variable and dependent variables.

For example, in our imaginary experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation on test performance, we would need to create very specific operational definitions for our two variables. If our hypothesis is "Students who are sleep deprived will score significantly lower on a test," then we would have a few different concepts to define:

  • Students: First, what do we mean by "students?" In our example, let’s define students as participants enrolled in an introductory university-level psychology course.
  • Sleep deprivation: Next, we need to operationally define the "sleep deprivation" variable. In our example, let’s say that sleep deprivation refers to those participants who have had less than five hours of sleep the night before the test.
  • Test variable: Finally, we need to create an operational definition for the test variable. For this example, the test variable will be defined as a student’s score on a chapter exam in the introductory psychology course.

Once all the variables are operationalized, we're ready to conduct the experiment.


Variables play an important part in psychology research. Manipulating an independent variable and measuring the dependent variable allows researchers to determine if there is a cause-and-effect relationship between them.

A Word From Verywell

Understanding the different types of variables used in psychology research is important if you want to conduct your own psychology experiments. It is also helpful for people who want to better understand what the results of psychology research really mean and become more informed consumers of psychology information.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Which type of investigations typically include independent and dependent variables?

    Independent and dependent variables are used in experimental research. Unlike some other types of research (such as correlational studies), experiments allow researchers to evaluate cause-and-effect relationships between two variables.

  • How do you determine the strength of a relationship between two variables?

    Researchers can use statistical analyses to determine the strength of a relationship between two variables in an experiment. Two of the most common ways to do this are to calculate a p-value or a correlation. The p-value indicates if the results are statistically significant while the correlation can indicate the strength of the relationship.

  • What are some examples of independent and dependent variables in research?

    In an experiment on how sugar affects short-term memory, sugar intake would be the independent variable and scores on a short-term memory task would be the independent variable.

    In an experiment looking at how caffeine intake affects test anxiety, the amount of caffeine consumed before a test would be the independent variable and scores on a test anxiety assessment would be the dependent variable.

  • What is an independent variable in cognitive psychology?

    Just as with other types of research, the independent variable in a cognitive psychology study would be the variable that the researchers manipulate. The specific independent variable would vary depending on the specific study, but it might be focused on some aspect of thinking, memory, attention, language, or decision-making.

4 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. American Psychological Association. Operational definition. APA Dictionary of Psychology.

  2. American Psychological Association. Mediator. APA Dictionary of Psychology.

  3. Altun I, Cınar N, Dede C. The contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students: A cross-sectional studyJ Res Med Sci. 2012;17(6):557-561. PMID:23626634

  4. Skelly AC, Dettori JR, Brodt ED. Assessing bias: The importance of considering confoundingEvid Based Spine Care J. 2012;3(1):9-12. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1298595

Additional Reading
  • Evans, AN & Rooney, BJ. Methods in Psychological Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications; 2014.
  • Kantowitz, BH, Roediger, HL, & Elmes, DG. Experimental Psychology. Stamfort, CT: Cengage Learning; 2015.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd
Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."