The Types of Aptitude Testing

Aptitude tests help measure capabilities.
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An aptitude test is designed to assess what a person is capable of doing or to predict what a person is able to learn or do given the right education and instruction. It represents a person's level of competency to perform a certain type of task. Such aptitude tests are often used to assess academic potential or career suitability. Such tests may be used to assess either mental or physical talent in a variety of domains.

A Few Examples of Aptitude Tests

Some examples of aptitude tests include:

  • A test assessing an individual's aptitude to become a fighter pilot
  • A career test evaluating a person's capability to work as an air traffic controller
  • An aptitude test is given to high school students to determine which type of careers they might be good at
  • A computer programming test to determine how a job candidate might solve different hypothetical problems 
  • A test designed to test a person's physical abilities needed for a particular job such as a police officer or firefighter

Students often encounter a variety of aptitude tests throughout school as they think about what they might like to study in college or do for as a career someday. High school students often take a variety of aptitude tests designed to help them determine what they should study in college or pursue as a career. These tests can sometimes give a general idea of what might interest students as a future career.

For example, a student might take an aptitude test suggesting that they are good with numbers and data. Such results might imply that a career as an accountant, banker, or stockbroker would be a good choice for that particular student. Another student might find that they have strong language and verbal skills, which might suggest that a career as an English teacher, writer, or journalist might be a good choice.

Unlike achievement tests, which are concerned with looking a person's level of skill or knowledge at any given time, aptitude tests are instead focused on determining how capable of a person might be of performing a certain task.

Aptitude Tests Versus Intelligence Tests

So what exactly makes an aptitude test different from an intelligence test? Many intelligence tests are designed to measure what is known as general intelligence, or an underlying global mental capacity that affects performance in all areas. Intelligence encompasses many different abilities including problem-solving, reasoning, memory, knowledge, and ability to adapt to a changing environment.

Aptitude tests, on the other hand, are designed to measure a much narrower range of abilities than IQ test do. However, some aptitude tests might have a very narrow focus that limits what they are able to predict. Other tests look at multiple domains are much more similar to intelligence tests.

Special aptitude tests are those designed to look at an individual's capacity in a particular area.

For example, imagine that a business wants to hire a computer programmer to work for their company. They will likely look at a range of things including work history and interview performance, but they might also want to administer an aptitude test to determine if job candidates possess the necessary skill to perform the job. This special aptitude test is designed to look at a very narrow range of ability - how skilled and knowledgeable the candidate is at computer programming.

Multiple aptitude tests are designed to measure two or more different abilities. In some cases, such tests may even resemble intelligence tests in terms of their focus and scope. The Scholastic Assessment Test (or SAT) that high-school students take during their senior year is a good example of a multiple aptitude test. The SAT measures aptitudes in areas including math, reasoning, and language and is often used by colleges and universities to determine if an applicant is prepared and has the ability to do well in college.

The Graduate Requisite Exam, as well as the specialized tests required in order to get into medical, law and business graduate programs, are also examples of multiple aptitude tests.

A Word From Verywell

Aptitude tests can be a good way to get an idea of what you are good at or what you might be good at given the right training. However, such tests cannot tell you everything. Consider your results carefully but also evaluate other factors such as your interests and experiences and then use this information when exploring different career options.

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Article Sources
  • Kline, P. Handbook of Psychological Testing. New York: Routledge; 2012.
  • Salking, N. & Rasmussen, K. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology, Volume 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications; 2008.