Psychotherapy What Is Art Therapy? By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry Facebook Twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial process Updated on November 08, 2022 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Amy Morin, LCSW Medically reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief of Verywell Mind. She's also a psychotherapist, the author of the bestselling book "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," and the host of The Verywell Mind Podcast. Learn about our Medical Review Board Fact checked Verywell Mind content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. We rely on the most current and reputable sources, which are cited in the text and listed at the bottom of each article. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Learn more. by Aaron Johnson Fact checked by Aaron Johnson Aaron Johnson is a fact checker and expert on qualitative research design and methodology. Learn about our editorial process Print Blend Images - KidStock / Brand X Pictures / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Types Techniques Uses Benefits Effectiveness Things to Consider How to Get Started The use of artistic methods to treat psychological disorders and enhance mental health is known as art therapy. Art therapy is a technique rooted in the idea that creative expression can foster healing and mental well-being. People have been relying on the arts for communication, self-expression, and healing for thousands of years. But art therapy didn't start to become a formal program until the 1940s. Doctors noted that individuals living with mental illness often expressed themselves in drawings and other artworks, which led many to explore the use of art as a healing strategy. Since then, art has become an important part of the therapeutic field and is used in some assessment and treatment techniques. Types of Creative Therapies Art therapy is not the only type of creative art used in the treatment of mental illness. Other types of creative therapies include: Dance therapy Drama therapy Expressive therapy Music therapy Writing therapy Techniques The goal of art therapy is to utilize the creative process to help people explore self-expression and, in doing so, find new ways to gain personal insight and develop new coping skills. The creation or appreciation of art is used to help people explore emotions, develop self-awareness, cope with stress, boost self-esteem, and work on social skills. Techniques used in art therapy can include: CollageColoringDoodling and scribblingDrawingFinger paintingPaintingPhotographySculptingWorking with clay As clients create art, they may analyze what they have made and how it makes them feel. Through exploring their art, people can look for themes and conflicts that may be affecting their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. What Art Therapy Can Help With Art therapy can be used to treat a wide range of mental disorders and psychological distress. In many cases, it might be used in conjunction with other psychotherapy techniques such as group therapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Some conditions that art therapy may be used to treat include: Aging-related issues Anxiety Cancer Depression Eating disorders Emotional difficulties Family or relationship problems Medical conditions Psychological symptoms associated with other medical issues Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Psychosocial issues Stress Substance use disorder Benefits of Art Therapy According to a 2016 study published in the Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, less than an hour of creative activity can reduce your stress and have a positive effect on your mental health, regardless of artistic experience or talent. An art therapist may use a variety of art methods, including drawing, painting, sculpture, and collage with clients ranging from young children to older adults. Clients who have experienced emotional trauma, physical violence, domestic abuse, anxiety, depression, and other psychological issues can benefit from expressing themselves creatively. Some situations in which art therapy might be utilized include: Adults experiencing severe stressChildren experiencing behavioral or social problems at school or at homeChildren or adults who have experienced a traumatic eventChildren with learning disabilitiesIndividuals living with a brain injuryPeople experiencing mental health problems Effectiveness While research suggests that art therapy may be beneficial, some of the findings on its effectiveness are mixed. Studies are often small and inconclusive, so further research is needed to explore how and when art therapy may be most beneficial. In studies of adults who experienced trauma, art therapy was found to significantly reduce trauma symptoms and decrease levels of depression.One review of the effectiveness of art therapy found that this technique helped patients undergoing medical treatment for cancer improve their quality of life and alleviated a variety of psychological symptoms.One study found that art therapy reduced depression and increased self-esteem in older adults living in nursing homes. Things to Consider If you or someone you love is thinking about art therapy, there are some common misconceptions and facts you should know. You Don't Have to Be Artistic People do not need to have artistic ability or special talent to participate in art therapy, and people of all ages including children, teens, and adults can benefit from it. Some research suggests that just the presence of art can play a part in boosting mental health. A 2017 study found that art displayed in hospital settings contributed to an environment where patients felt safe. It also played a role in improving socialization and maintaining an identity outside of the hospital. It's Not the Same as an Art Class People often wonder how an art therapy session differs from an art class. Where an art class is focused on teaching technique or creating a specific finished product, art therapy is more about letting clients focus on their inner experience. In creating art, people are able to focus on their own perceptions, imagination, and feelings. Clients are encouraged to create art that expresses their inner world more than making something that is an expression of the outer world. Art Therapy Can Take Place in a Variety of Settings Inpatient offices, private mental health offices, schools, and community organizations are all possible settings for art therapy services. Additionally, art therapy may be available in other settings such as: Art studiosColleges and universitiesCommunity centersCorrectional facilitiesElementary schools and high schoolsGroup homesHomeless sheltersHospitalsPrivate therapy officesResidential treatment centersSenior centersWellness centerWomen's shelters If specialized media or equipment is required, however, finding a suitable setting may become challenging. Art Therapy Is Not for Everyone Art therapy isn’t for everyone. While high levels of creativity or artistic ability aren't necessary for art therapy to be successful, many adults who believe they are not creative or artistic might be resistant or skeptical of the process. In addition, art therapy has not been found effective for all types of mental health conditions. For example, one meta-analysis found that art therapy is not effective in reducing positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia. How to Get Started If you think you or someone you love would benefit from art therapy, consider the following steps: Seek out a trained professional. Qualified art therapists will hold at least a master’s degree in psychotherapy with an additional art therapy credential. To find a qualified art therapist, consider searching the Art Therapy Credentials Board website. Call your health insurance. While art therapy may not be covered by your health insurance, there may be certain medical waivers to help fund part of the sessions. Your insurance may also be more likely to cover the sessions if your therapist is a certified psychologist or psychiatrist who offers creative therapies. Ask about their specialty. Not all art therapists specialize in all mental health conditions. Many specialize in working with people who have experienced trauma or individuals with substance use disorders, for example. Know what to expect. During the first few sessions, your art therapist will likely ask you about your health background as well as your current concerns and goals. They may also suggest a few themes to begin exploring via drawing, painting, sculpting, or another medium. Be prepared to answer questions about your art-making process. As the sessions progress, you'll likely be expected to answer questions about your art and how it makes you feel. For example: What were you thinking while doing the art? Did you notice a change of mood from when you started to when you finished? Did the artwork stir any memories? Becoming an Art Therapist If you are interested in becoming an art therapist, start by checking with your state to learn more about the education, training, and professional credentials you will need to practice. In most cases, you may need to first become a licensed clinical psychologist, professional counselor, or social worker in order to offer psychotherapy services. In the United States, the Art Therapy Credentials Board, Inc. (ATCB) offers credentialing programs that allow art therapists to become registered, board-certified, or licensed depending upon the state in which they live and work. According to the American Art Therapy Association, the minimum requirements: A master's degree in art therapy, or A master's degree in counseling or a related field with additional coursework in art therapy Additional post-graduate supervised experience is also required. You can learn more about the training and educational requirements to become an art therapist on the AATA website. 20 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Van Lith T. Art therapy in mental health: A systematic review of approaches and practices. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 2016;47:9-22. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2015.09.003 Junge MB. History of Art Therapy. The Wiley Handbook of Art Therapy. Published online November 6, 2015:7-16. doi:10.1002/9781118306543.ch1 Farokhi M. Art therapy in humanistic psychiatry. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011;30:2088-2092. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.406 Haen C, Nancy Boyd Webb. Creative Arts-Based Group Therapy with Adolescents: Theory and Practice. 1st ed. (Haen C, Webb NB, eds.). Routledge; 2019. doi:10.4324/9780203702000 Schouten KA, de Niet GJ, Knipscheer JW, Kleber RJ, Hutschemaekers GJM. The effectiveness of art therapy in the treatment of traumatized adults. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 2014;16(2):220-228. doi:10.1177/1524838014555032 Gall DJ, Jordan Z, Stern C. Effectiveness and meaningfulness of art therapy as a tool for healthy aging: a comprehensive systematic review protocol. JBI Evidence Synthesis. 2015;13(3):3-17. doi:10.11124/jbisrir-2015-1840 Lefèvre C, Ledoux M, Filbet M. 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Front Psychol. 2018;9. doi:10.3389%2Ffpsyg.2018.01531 Regev D, Cohen-Yatziv L. Effectiveness of art therapy with adult clients in 2018—what progress has been made?. Front Psychol. 2018;9:1531. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01531 Ching-Teng Y, Ya-Ping Y, Yu-Chia C. Positive effects of art therapy on depression and self-esteem of older adults in nursing homes. Social Work in Health Care. 2019;58(3):324-338. doi:10.1080/00981389.2018.1564108 Nielsen SL, Fich LB, Roessler KK, Mullins MF. How do patients actually experience and use art in hospitals? The significance of interaction: a user-oriented experimental case study. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. 2017;12(1):1267343. doi:10.1080/17482631.2016.1267343 Gussak DE. Art therapy in the prison milieu. In: Gussak DE, Rosal ML, eds. The Wiley Handbook of Art Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015:478-486. doi:10.1002/9781118306543.ch46 Stuckey HL, Nobel J. The connection between art, healing, and public health: A review of current literature. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(2):254-63. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.156497 Bird J. Art therapy, arts-based research and transitional stories of domestic violence and abuse. International Journal of Art Therapy. 2018;23(1):14-24. doi:10.1080/17454832.2017.1317004 Laws KR, Conway W. Do adjunctive art therapies reduce symptomatology in schizophrenia? A meta-analysis. WJP. 2019;9(8):107-120. doi:10.5498/wjp.v9.i8.107 About The Credentials | Art Therapy Credentials Board, Inc. ATCB. https://www.atcb.org/about-the-credentials/ Additional Reading Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2018: 29-1125 Recreational Therapists. Nielsen SL, Fich LB, Roessler KK, Mullins MF. How do patients actually experience and use art in hospitals? The significance of interaction: a user-oriented experimental case study. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2017;12(1):1267343. doi:10.1080/17482631.2016.1267343 By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.