What Is Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)?

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What Is Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)?

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious psychological condition that's characterized by unstable moods and emotions, relationships, and behavior. It's one of several personality disorders recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

Personality disorders are psychological conditions that begin in adolescence or early adulthood, continue over many years, and, when left untreated, can cause a great deal of distress. Thankfully, the right treatments targeted for BPD can help significantly.

Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder

BPD can often interfere with your ability to enjoy life or achieve fulfillment in relationships, work, or school. It's associated with specific and significant problems in interpersonal relationships, self-image, emotions, behaviors, and thinking, including:

  • Behaviors: BPD is associated with a tendency to engage in risky and impulsive behaviors, such as going on shopping sprees, drinking excessive amounts of alcohol or abusing drugs, engaging in promiscuous or risky sex, or binge eating. Also, people with BPD are more prone to engage in self-harming behaviors, such as cutting or burning and attempting suicide.
  • Emotions: Emotional instability is a key feature of BPD. Individuals feel like they're on an emotional roller coaster with quick mood shifts (i.e., going from feeling OK to feeling extremely down or blue within a few minutes). Mood changes can last from minutes to days and are often intense. Anger, anxiety, and overwhelming emptiness are common as well.
  • Relationships: People with BPD tend to have intense relationships with loved ones characterized by frequent conflicts, arguments, and break-ups. BPD is associated with an intense fear of being abandoned by loved ones and attempts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. This usually leads to difficulty trusting others, putting a strain on relationships.
  • Self-image: Individuals with BPD have difficulties related to the stability of their sense of self. They report many ups and downs in how they feel about themselves. One moment they may feel good about themselves, but the next they may feel they are bad or even evil.
  • Stress-related changes in thinking: Under conditions of stress, people with BPD may experience changes in thinking, including paranoid thoughts (for example, thoughts that others may be trying to cause them harm), or dissociation (feeling spaced out, numb, or like they're not really in their body).

Not everyone with BPD experiences every symptom. Some people may have a few, while others experience most of these symptoms.

Diagnosing Borderline Personality Disorder

BPD is diagnosed by evaluating an individual's symptoms and reviewing their medical history. A doctor may also perform a physical exam and lab tests to rule out medical illnesses that might be contributing to the symptoms.

In order to be diagnosed with BPD, the individual must experience five or more of the following symptoms in a variety of contexts:

  • Efforts to avoid abandonment
  • Emotional instability
  • Feelings of emptiness
  • Identity disturbances
  • Impulsive behaviors
  • Inappropriate, intense anger
  • Unstable interpersonal relationships
  • Suicidal or self-harming behaviors
  • Transient paranoid or dissociative symptoms

A doctor or therapist will also rule out mental health conditions that can cause similar symptoms. This includes bipolar disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder.

If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911.

For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database.

Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder

Like most psychological disorders, the exact cause of BPD is not known. However, there is research to suggest that some combination of nature (biology or genetics) and nurture (environment) is at play.

Contributing factors that may increase your risk include:

  • Brain structure: There is evidence of differences in brain structure and function in individuals with BPD, especially in the parts of the brain that affect impulse control and emotional regulation. However, it's still unclear if these differences are a result of having BPD, or if they are part of the cause.
  • Family history: Having a parent or sibling with BPD may also increase the risk of developing the condition.
  • Negative experiences: Many people diagnosed with BPD have experienced childhood abuse, trauma, or neglect or were separated from their caregivers at an early age. However, not all people with BPD had one of these childhood experiences, and, conversely, many people who have had them do not develop BPD.

Remember that a risk factor is not the same as a cause; just because you have risk factors doesn't mean you will develop BPD, just as people without them can develop it anyway.

Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

Although at one time experts believed that BPD was unlikely to respond to treatment, research has shown that BPD is very treatable. Getting help from a mental health professional is critical because, with consistent treatment, you can live a better quality of life with fewer symptoms.

Since BPD is associated with risky behavior, self-harm, and suicide, treatment can also help curb these behaviors. Find someone who specializes in BPD, because you will need treatments that are targeted specifically to BPD. If you aren't getting the right treatment, it may not be as effective.

The usual order of treatment options includes:

  • Psychotherapy: This is the standard treatment for BPD. Examples of psychotherapy that are targeted to BPD include dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and mentalization-based treatment (MBT). This may include your family, friends, or caregivers.
  • Medication: Your mental health professional may also recommend medication to help treat certain symptoms such as depression or mood swings.
  • Other treatments: Hospitalization or more intensive treatments may be necessary in times of crisis.

The symptoms of BPD can affect a variety of areas, including work, school, relationships, legal status, and physical health, which is why treatment is so critical. Despite the obstacles that BPD can cause, many people with BPD lead normal, fulfilling lives when they stick with their treatment plan.

Coping With Borderline Personality Disorder

If you have BPD, there are things you can do that will help improve your ability to function and cope. Steps you can take that can improve your quality of life include:

  • Seek appropriate treatment: If you think that you or a loved one may have BPD, it's imperative that you seek the help of a licensed mental health professional, such as a mental health counselor, social worker, psychologist, or psychiatrist.
  • Get an accurate diagnosis: It's important to remember that many of the symptoms of BPD are symptoms that everyone experiences from time to time. Also, some of the symptoms of BPD overlap with other mental and physical conditions. Only a licensed professional can diagnose BPD.

Borderline Personality Disorder Discussion Guide

Get our printable guide to help you ask the right questions at your next doctor's appointment.

Mind Doc Guide
  • Work with your doctor or therapist on a treatment plan: The good news is that once a diagnosis is made, there is hope. Your therapist or doctor can help to determine a plan of action, which may include psychotherapy, medications, or other treatments.
  • Stick to your treatment plan: Research has shown that with good, consistent treatment, BPD symptoms can be reduced significantly. Some people who were once diagnosed with BPD no longer meet the criteria for the disorder with treatment and time.
  • Give it time: While the reasons why are not clear, the symptoms of BPD tend to decrease during middle age, with many people starting to see improvements around age 40.

If you or a loved one are struggling with borderline personality disorder, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area.

9 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington D.C.: 2013.

  2. National Institute of Mental Health. Borderline personality disorder.

  3. Cleveland Clinic. Borderline personality disorder (BPD): Diagnosis and tests.

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  5. Cattane N, Rossi R, Lanfredi M, Cattaneo A. Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: Exploring the affected biological systems and mechanismsBMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):221. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1383-2

  6. Choi-Kain LW, Finch EF, Masland SR, Jenkins JA, Unruh BT. What works in the treatment of borderline personality disorderCurr Behav Neurosci Rep. 2017;4(1):21–30. doi:10.1007/s40473-017-0103-z

  7. Stoffers JM, Völlm BA, Rücker G, Timmer A, Huband N, Lieb K. Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorderCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2012(8):CD005652. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005652.pub2

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  9. Cleveland Clinic. Borderline personality disorder (BPD): Outlook/prognosis.

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