Gestalt Psychology Overview

Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole. When trying to make sense of the world around us, Gestalt psychology suggests that we do not simply focus on every small component.

Instead, our minds tend to perceive objects as part of a greater whole and as elements of more complex systems. This school of psychology played a major role in the modern development of the study of human sensation and perception.

A Brief History

Originating in the work of Max Wertheimer, Gestalt psychology formed partially as a response to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt.

While Wundt was interested in breaking down psychological matters into their smallest possible part, the Gestalt psychologists were instead interested in looking at the totality of the mind and behavior. The guiding principle behind the Gestalt movement was that the whole was greater than the sum of its parts.

The development of this area of psychology was influenced by a number of thinkers, including Immanuel Kant, Ernst Mach, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

The development of Gestalt psychology was influenced in part by Wertheimer's observations one day at a train station. He purchased a toy stroboscope which displayed pictures in a rapid sequence to mimic the appearing movement. He later proposed the concept of the Phi phenomenon in which flashing lights in sequence can lead to what is known as apparent motion.

In other words, we perceive movement where there is none. Movies are one example of apparent motion. Through a sequence of still frames, the illusion of movement is created.

"The fundamental 'formula' of Gestalt theory might be expressed in this way,” Max Wertheimer wrote. "There are wholes, the behavior of which is not determined by that of their individual elements, but where the part-processes are themselves determined by the intrinsic nature of the whole. It is the hope of Gestalt theory to determine the nature of such wholes."

Major Gestalt Psychologists

There were a number of thinkers who had an influence on Gestalt psychology. Some of the best-known Gestalt psychologists included:

Max Wertheimer: Regarded as one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology, Wertheimer is also known for his concept of the phi phenomenon. The phi phenomenon involves perceiving a series of still images in rapid succession in order to create the illusion of movement.

Kurt Koffka: Know as one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology, Kurt Koffka had diverse interests and studied many topics in psychology including learning, perception, and hearing impairments.

Wolfgang Kohler: Also a key founding figure in the history of the Gestalt movement, Kohler also famously summarized Gestalt theory by saying, "The whole is different than the sum of its parts." He was also known for his research on problem-solving, his criticisms of the introspection used by the structuralists to study the human mind, and his opposition to behaviorism.

Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization

Have you ever noticed how a series of flashing lights often appear to be moving, such as neon signs or strands of Christmas lights? According to Gestalt psychology, this apparent movement happens because our minds fill in the missing information.

This belief that the whole is greater than the sum of the individual parts led to the discovery of several different phenomena that occur during perception.

gestalt psychology
Verywell / Emily Roberts


In order to better understand how human perception works, Gestalt psychologists proposed a number of laws of perceptual organization, including the laws of similarity, Pragnanz, proximity, continuity, and closure.


The law of similarity suggests that similar items tend to be grouped together.  If a number of objects in a scene are similar to one another, you will naturally group them together and perceive them as a whole. For example, a series of circles or squares stacked together will be viewed as a series of columns rather than just individual shapes.


The law of proximity suggests that objects near each other tend to be viewed as a group. If you see a number of people standing close together, for example, you might immediately assume that they are all part of the same social group.

At a restaurant, for example, the host or hostess might assume that people seated next to each other in the waiting area are together and ask if they are ready to be seated. In reality, they may only be sitting near each other because there is little room in the waiting area or because those were the only open seats.

Gestalt psychology also helped introduce the idea that human perception is not just about seeing what is actually present in the world around us. Much of what we perceive is heavily influenced by our motivations and expectations.

A Word From Verywell

Gestalt psychology did face criticism, particularly in that many of its central concepts can be difficult to define and examine experimentally. While this approach may have lost its identity as an independent school of thought in psychology, its central ideas have had a major influence on the field of psychology as a whole.

Gestalt psychology has largely been subsumed by other fields of psychology, but it had an enormous influence. Other researchers who were influenced by the principles of Gestalt psychology including Kurt Lewin and Kurt Goldstein went on to make important contributions to psychology.

The idea that the whole is different than its parts has played a role in other areas including our understanding of the brain and social behavior.

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  1. Steinman RM, Pizlo Z, Pizlo FJ. Vision Res. Phi is not beta, and why Wertheimer's discovery launched the Gestalt revolution. 2000;40(17):2257-64.

  2. Kubovy M, and van den berg, M. Psychol Rev. The whole is equal to the sum of its parts: a probabilistic model of grouping by proximity and similarity in regular patterns. 2008 Jan;115(1):131-154. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.115.1.131.

Additional Reading
  • Hergenhahn, BR. An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning; 2009.

  • Koffka, K. Principles of Gestalt Psychology. Oxford: Routledge; 2014.