Informed Consent in Psychology

Signing informed consent
agencybook/Cultura/Getty Images

Informed consent ensures that patients, clients, and research participants are aware of all the potential risks and costs involved in a treatment or procedure. Both the patient receiving treatment and the client funding it need to be aware of any possible harm that might occur. 

For informed consent to be considered valid, the participant must be mentally competent enough to make the required decision. The consent should be given voluntarily without coercion or deception.

Elements of Informed Consent in Psychology Research

According to the American Psychological Association, researchers must do the following to obtain informed consent from participants in psychology research:

  • Inform the participants about the purpose of the research, the anticipated duration of the study, and the procedures that will be used.
  • Participants must be told that they have the right to decline to participate in the study. They also must know that they can withdraw from the experiment at any time.
  • Participants must be made aware of any possible consequences of declining or withdrawing from the study.
  • Participants must be made aware of any potential consequences of participating in the study. This includes any potential risks, adverse effects, or discomfort that may occur.
  • Participants must be made aware of the potential benefits of the research.
  • Any limitations on confidentiality must be disclosed.
  • Any incentives for participation should be clearly identified.
  • Participants must be told who they can contact if they have questions about the research or the rights of participants in the study.

How Do Researchers Obtain Informed Consent?

Researchers can obtain either written or verbal confirmation to document and verify that all participants have given informed consent to participate. In most instances, researchers utilize a prewritten form that outlines all of the required information and allows participants to sign and date to confirm that they have read and understood the information.

Is Informed Consent Always Necessary?

There are a few instances when the APA suggests that psychologists may do without informed consent. Such cases include when there is a reasonable assumption that the research would not cause any distress or harm. Another instance is when a study examines normal classroom curricula or educational practices.

Studies that involve anonymous questionnaires, archival data, or naturalistic observations do not require informed consent as long as the research presents no risk to the participants. Even in cases where informed consent is not needed, the participants can still withdraw at any time.

The Use of Deception in Research

What about cases where deception may be an integral part of the study? In some instances, informing participants about the nature of the experiment might influence their behavior and therefore the results. 

The APA notes that deception should only take place if the use of such techniques is justified given what might be gained from performing the study. It is often the duty of an Institutional Review Board to determine if the use of deception is acceptable and to grant permission for such studies to take place.

If researchers do use deception as part of an experiment, ethical guidelines suggest that participants should be informed of the deception and the true nature of the experiment as soon as possible. Once such deception has been revealed, participants should also be given the opportunity to withdraw their data if they so desire.

Was this page helpful?
4 Sources
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Amer AB. Informed consent in adult psychiatry. Oman Med J. 2013;28(4):228-231. doi:10.5001/omj.2013.67

  2. American Psychological Association. Ethical principles of psychologists. Updated January 1, 2017.

  3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Information Sheet: Informed Consent. Published July 2014.

  4. Oregon State University. Research involving deception.