Basics What Is Reactive Attachment Disorder? By Amy Morin, LCSW Amy Morin, LCSW Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief of Verywell Mind. She's also a psychotherapist, the author of the bestselling book "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," and the host of The Verywell Mind Podcast. Learn about our editorial process Updated on October 11, 2021 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Steven Gans, MD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print istockphoto Table of Contents View All Table of Contents What Is Reactive Attachment Disorder? Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Prevalence Treatment Coping What Is Reactive Attachment Disorder? Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a rare but serious condition in which an infant or young child does not form healthy and secure bonds with their primary caregivers. Children with this condition struggle to form relationships with others, rarely seek comfort from caregivers, and have trouble managing their emotions. Babies bond with adults who provide them with consistent, loving care. They recognize the adults who protect them and calm them when they’re feeling stressed. In most cases, they develop healthy, secure attachments to their primary caregivers, like their parents, daycare provider, or perhaps a grandparent who is very involved. When babies struggle to form healthy relationships with a stable adult, they may develop reactive attachment disorder. This can have profound effects on a child's development and future bonds. Symptoms Reactive attachment disorder goes beyond behavior problems. In order to qualify for a diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder, a child must exhibit a consistent pattern of inhibited, emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers. Children with reactive attachment disorder: Rarely or minimally seek comfort when distressedRarely or minimally respond to comfort when distressed To meet the criteria, they must also exhibit two of the following symptoms: Minimal social and emotional responsiveness to othersLimited positive affectEpisodes of unexplained irritability, sadness, or fearfulness that are evident during non-threatening interactions with adult caregivers In addition to exhibiting those symptoms, the child must also have a history of insufficient care as evidenced by at least one of the following: Changes in primary caregivers that limit the child’s opportunity to form a stable attachmentPersistent lack of emotional warmth and affection from adultsBeing raised in an unusual setting that severely limits a child’s opportunity to form selective attachments (such as an orphanage) The symptoms must be present before the age of 5. And the child must have a developmental age of at least 9 months to qualify for a diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder. Diagnosis Teachers, daycare providers, and primary caregivers are likely to notice that a child with reactive attachment disorder exhibits emotional and behavioral issues. A thorough examination by a mental health professional can establish whether a child has reactive attachment disorder. An evaluation may include: Direct observation of the child interacting with a caregiver A thorough history of a child’s development and living situation Interviews with the primary caregivers to learn more about parenting styles Observation of the child’s behavior There are several other conditions that may present with similar emotional or behavioral symptoms. A mental health professional will determine whether a child’s symptoms may be explained by other conditions such as: Adjustment disorders Post-traumatic stress disorder Cognitive disabilities Autism Mood disorders Sometimes, children with reactive attachment disorder experience comorbid conditions. Research shows that children with attachment disorders experience higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, and conduct disorders. History of the Diagnosis Reactive attachment disorder is a relatively new diagnosis. It was first introduced in the DSM in 1980. In 1987, two subtypes of reactive attachment disorder were introduced; inhibited and disinhibited. In 2013, the diagnosis was updated again. The DSM-5 refers to the disinhibited type as a separate condition called disinhibited social engagement disorder. Disinhibited social engagement disorder is an attachment disorder that is also caused by a lack of a secure attachment with a caregiver—like reactive attachment disorder. Children with disinhibited social engagement disorder approach and interact with unfamiliar adults without any fear. They are often willing to go off with a stranger without any hesitation. Causes Reactive attachment disorder may result when children aren’t given proper care by stable and consistent caregivers. If a caregiver doesn’t respond to an infant’s cries or a child isn’t nurtured and loved, they may not develop a healthy attachment. Here are some examples of times when a child may not be able to form a secure attachment to a primary caregiver: A child’s mother is incarcerated off and on. The child resides with various relatives while she is in jail and the baby is never in the same home long enough to form a strong bond with any adults. A mother has depression. Consequently, she struggles to care for her child. She is not responsive to the child when they cry and doesn’t show them much affection. A child is removed from their birth parents and placed in foster care. They live in several different foster homes over the course of a year. They don't form secure relationships with any caregivers. Two parents have serious substance abuse problems. Under the influence of drugs and alcohol, they aren’t able to provide their child with adequate care. A baby is placed in an orphanage. There are many different caregivers but the baby is rarely held or consoled when they cry. They spend most of their time in a crib. A young mother doesn’t understand child development basics. She lacks the knowledge to care for her child physically and emotionally. The child doesn’t bond with the mother because she isn’t responsive to the baby's needs. Any time there’s a consistent disregard for a child’s emotional or physical needs, a child may be at risk for developing a reactive attachment disorder. A lack of stimulation and affection can also play a role. Prevalence Since reactive attachment disorder is a relatively new diagnosis—and many children go untreated—it’s uncertain how many children may meet the criteria. In 2010, a study in Denmark found that less than 0.4% of children had reactive attachment disorder. A 2013 study estimated about 1.4% of children living in an impoverished area in the United Kingdom had an attachment disorder. It’s estimated that children in foster care—and those who resided in orphanages—exhibit much higher rates of reactive attachment disorder. A 2013 study of children in foster care in Romania found that about 4% exhibited reactive attachment disorder at 54 months of age. A history of maltreatment and disruptions to a child’s care likely increases the risk. Treatment The first step in treating a child with reactive attachment disorder usually involves ensuring the child is given a loving, caring, and stable environment. Therapy won’t be effective if a child continues moving from foster home to foster home or if they continue living in a residential setting with inconsistent caregivers. Therapy usually involves the child as well as the parent or primary caregiver. The caregiver is educated about reactive attachment disorder and given information about how to build trust and develop a healthy bond. Sometimes, caregivers are encouraged to attend parenting classes to learn how to manage behavior problems. And if the caregiver struggles to provide a child with warmth and affection, parent training may be provided to help a child feel safe and loved. Controversial Therapies That Are Not Recommended In the past, some treatment centers used several controversial therapies for children with reactive attachment disorder. For example, holding therapy involves a therapist or a caregiver physically restraining a child. The child is expected to go through a range of emotions until they eventually stop resisting. Unfortunately, some children have died while being restrained. Another controversial therapy involves rebirthing. During rebirthing, children with reactive attachment disorder are wrapped in blankets and therapists simulate the birthing process by acting as though the child is moving through the birth canal. Rebirthing became illegal in several states after a child suffocated. The American Psychiatric Association and The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry caution against holding therapies and rebirthing techniques. Such techniques are considered pseudoscience and there is no evidence that they reduce the symptoms associated with reactive attachment disorder. If you consider any non-traditional treatments for your child, it’s important to talk to your child’s doctor before beginning treatment. Prognosis Without treatment, a child with reactive attachment disorder may experience ongoing social, emotional, and behavioral problems. This may put a child at risk for bigger problems as they grow older. Researchers estimate that 52% of juvenile offenders have an attachment disorder or borderline attachment disorder. The vast majority of those teens had experienced maltreatment or neglect early in life. Early intervention may be key to helping kids develop healthy attachments earlier in life. And the sooner they receive treatment, the fewer problems they may have over time. Coping There are several ways in which primary caregivers may be able to reduce the risk that a child will develop reactive attachment disorder. These can also be helpful for coping with the symptoms of this condition and establishing healthy connections Educate yourself about child development. Learning how to respond to your baby’s cues and how to help reduce your child’s stress can be instrumental in developing a healthy attachment. Provide positive attention. Playing with your baby, reading to them, and cuddling with them can help establish a loving and trusting relationship. Nurture your child. Simple everyday activities, like changing your baby’s diaper and feeding them, are opportunities to bond. Learn about attachment issues. If you are raising a child who has a history of neglect, maltreatment, or caregiver interruptions, educate yourself about attachment issues. If you have concerns that your child may have an emotional or behavioral disorder, start by talking to your child’s doctor. The pediatrician can evaluate your child and determine whether a referral to a mental health provider is appropriate. Early diagnosis and intervention are important because they are linked to better outcomes in children who have this condition. If you or a loved one are struggling with reactive attachment disorder, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. 9 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. MedlinePlus. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood. Ellis EE, Saadabadi A. Reactive attachment disorder. StatPearls Publishing. Minnis H, Macmillan S, Pritchett R, et al. Prevalence of reactive attachment disorder in a deprived population. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2013;202(5):342-346. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.114074 Skovgaard, AM. Mental health problems and psychopathology in infancy and early childhood. An epidemiological study. Danish Medical Bulletin. 2010;57(10):B4193. Gleason MM, Fox NA, Drury S, et al. Validity of evidence-derived criteria for reactive attachment disorder: indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited types. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50(3):216-231.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.12.012 Josefson D. Rebirthing therapy banned after girl died in 70 minute struggle. BMJ. 2001;322(7293):1014. AACAP. Attachment disorder. Moran K, McDonald J, Jackson A, Turnbull S, Minnis H. A study of attachment disorders in young offenders attending specialist services. Child Abuse Negl. 2017;65:77-87. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.01.009 Cleveland Clinic. Reactive attachment disorder: living with. Additional Reading Mayes SD, Calhoun SL, Waschbusch DA, Breaux RP, Baweja R. Reactive attachment/disinhibited social engagement disorders: Callous-unemotional traits and comorbid disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2017;63:28-37. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2017.02.012 By Amy Morin, LCSW Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief of Verywell Mind. She's also a licensed clinical social worker, psychotherapist, and international bestselling author. Her books, including "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," have been translated into more than 40 languages. Her TEDx talk, "The Secret of Becoming Mentally Strong," is one of the most viewed talks of all time. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.