How Sensory Adaptation Works

Woman tasting sauce from a wooden spoon
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Imagine that you just walked into your favorite Italian restaurant. When you first walk through the door, the delicious smell of garlic and tomatoes is almost overwhelming. You sit down to wait for a table, and after a few minutes, the scents begin to dissipate until you barely notice them. This is an example of sensory adaptation.

Why We Experience Sensory Adaptation

Sensory adaptation is a reduction in sensitivity to a stimulus after constant exposure to it. While sensory adaptation reduces our awareness of a constant stimulus, it helps free up our attention and resources to attend to other stimuli in the environment around us. All five of our senses can experience sensory adaptation. Our senses are constantly adjusting to what's around us, as well as to us individually and what we are experiencing, such as aging or disease.

Just imagine what it would be like if you didn't experience sensory adaptation. You might find yourself overwhelmed by the pungent smell of onions coming from the kitchen or the blare of the television from the living room. Since constant exposure to a sensory stimulus reduces our sensitivity to it, we are able to shift our attention to other things in our environment rather than focusing on one overwhelming stimulus.

Examples of Sensory Adaptation

Here are some more examples of sensory adaptation in different senses.

  • Scent: Smokers are not bothered by the smell of tobacco smoke the way nonsmokers are, because smokers are accustomed to the odor. Their sensory receptors respond less to the stimuli (the smell of smoke), because they experience it often.
  • Sight: When you go into a dark room or outside at night, your eyes eventually adjust to the darkness because your pupils enlarge to let in more light. Likewise, when you are in bright light, your eyes adjust by the narrowing of your pupils. This is another form of sensory adaptation.
  • Touch: When you jump into a cold swimming pool or first get into a hot tub, the water may feel unpleasantly cold or much too hot, but eventually, your body adjusts to the temperature and it feels only mildly cool or perfectly pleasant and even, eventually, too cold or too warm.
  • Taste: With the first bite of a very flavorful dish, you'll notice the strong saltiness, sourness, or sweetness of the food. But after a few mouthfuls, your taste buds will adapt and the flavor will not be as pronounced.
  • Hearing: A classic example is city dwellers who are able to tune out traffic and other urban sounds; their sleep, for example, isn't disturbed by the sounds outside their windows.

Even hand-eye coordination adjusts when necessary. For instance, if you put on goggles that make everything appear to be a little off and you try to throw a ball at an object, eventually your sensory adaptation will take over and you'll adjust enough to be able to hit it.


A Word From Verywell

If you've heard the term "nose blind," you've heard of sensory adaption; it's the same thing. (But it's different from anosmia, or the inability to smell.) You also might notice that when you're away from a smell or a sound for a while, such as when you go on vacation and then return to your home, you notice it again. It will probably not take much time for you to adapt to the sensory inputs of your environment and go "blind" to them once again.

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  1. Coon D, Mitterer JO. Introduction to psychology: gateways to mind and behavior with concept maps. Wadsworth; 2010.

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