Race and Identity Race and Mental Health White Supremacy's Impact on Mental Health of BIPOC Folks By Krystal Jagoo Krystal Jagoo Krystal Kavita Jagoo is a social worker, committed to anti-oppressive practice, who has worked for three academic institutions across Canada. Her essay, “Inclusive Reproductive Justice,” was in the Reproductive Justice Briefing Book. Learn about our editorial process Updated on August 04, 2021 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Akeem Marsh, MD Medically reviewed by Akeem Marsh, MD LinkedIn Twitter Akeem Marsh, MD, is a board-certified child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist who has dedicated his career to working with medically underserved communities. Learn about our Medical Review Board Fact checked Verywell Mind content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. We rely on the most current and reputable sources, which are cited in the text and listed at the bottom of each article. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Learn more. by Emily Swaim Fact checked by Emily Swaim LinkedIn Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell. Learn about our editorial process Print The United States has a long history of white supremacy—the idea that White people are superior to people with other skin colors and ethnic backgrounds. White supremacy is also perpetuated by systems in society that fail to reflect the diversity of BIPOC people and therefore fail to meet their needs equitably. Given the American history of Indigenous genocide and enslavement of Black folks, white supremacy tends to be ingrained in the DNA of this country. Impact on BIPOC Mental Health It is impossible to review all of the ways in which white supremacy harms BIPOC folks, as its ramifications are complex both on the personal and societal level. A basic understanding of the pervasive nature of white supremacy can develop your ability to think more critically about how this is perpetuated in small and large ways. Lack of Adequate Services There is no shortage of ways in which white supremacy negatively impacts the mental health of BIPOC folks, and this issue is further compounded by how many barriers they confront when attempting to access culturally competent services, given how mental health can often be treated by practitioners who lack understanding of systemic oppression. Confronting these specific issues is generally not part of training programs, and not just that, often taboo. There are some programs out there that address this in depth, but it is far from the standard of care. Lack of Representation In a research study that delved into beauty and body image issues experienced by Black college students, these women reported that Eurocentric beauty standards had a negative impact on self-esteem, especially when mainstream media either lacked any representation of them or portrayed them as less desirable or hypersexualized. It starts younger as well. There are more examples from history, such as the doll test in which children generally showed a preference for white or lighter skinned dolls, describing them with positive traits, while showing less preference for darker skinned dolls and describing them more negatively. With experiences like these, BIPOC folks often develop anxiety and depressive symptoms as they reconcile how their bodies fail to conform to how they are represented in society and how they do not fit what is typically "valued." While to some, these may appear to be minor challenges on the surface, when BIPOC folks experience these on a regular basis for an extended period of time, they can internalize it as a poor reflection of themselves, rather than systems that are inherently white supremacist. For instance, growing up not seeing anyone who looks like you in a classroom, on television, or even in your community can have negative internalized effects. It has been found that when children do not have healthy, positive representations of people who share their identities, it leads to lower self-esteem and ultimately limits their potential. Similarities to PTSD Racial trauma refers to ongoing individual and collective harms from repeated exposure to race-based stress. The mental health effects of racial trauma have been compared to post-traumatic stress disorder, but unlike the traditional model of PTSD, race-based traumatic stress involves prolonged exposure to stress instead of one distinct incident. There is no shortage of race-based stress triggers in a white supremacist society, so mental health is bound to be negatively impacted by such rampant environmental factors. Examples of Systemic White Supremacy There are countless examples of the influence of white supremacy in society—particularly among popular media, in American schools, and more. Children's Literature In terms of representation in children's literature, research from the Cooperative Children's Book Center demonstrated how children's literature remains overwhelmingly White. As of 2019, you are more likely to find a kid's book starring a character that is not human, at a rate of 29%, than one starring a Black, First Nations, Asian, Latinx, or Pacific Islander child, at a rate of 27%. This further disadvantages BIPOC students with the implicit messaging that their stories do not matter as much as their White peers' stories do. Similar patterns are the norm regarding whose narratives are given attention in films and television shows, in comparison to whose lives are viewed as disposable. American School System Within the American school system, the way in which learning focuses on the narratives of some at the expense of others can be an example of white supremacy. For instance, many people go through the American education system learning American history from the perspective of the dominant culture. In other words, ask yourself how often you read accounts from the perspectives of the cultures that colonizers violently interrupted, such as those of Indigenous peoples or enslaved Black folks? In this way, we are emphasizing the perspective of the oppressors and not those who were oppressed. Courses and materials centered around BIPOC folks tend to be electives, while courses centered on the white perspective are required. With this in mind, writer Layla F. Saad issued a challenge to educators to reflect on how their classrooms may have been spaces wherein white supremacy had been unintentionally reinforced, and some folks did that much-needed work to unpack their own complicity with systems of bigotry that harm BIPOC students. How Educators Challenged White Supremacy Recognizing their racist thoughtsChallenging these racist thoughtsAcknowledging times when their silence reinforced white supremacy in their classroomsDeveloping more advanced understandings in general of how school systems embody a far from equitable distribution of power that is not in favor of BIPOC students Confronting White Supremacist Norms Coping skills vary among BIPOC folks, but it can be helpful to consider the strategies that were useful when dealing with other challenging situations when confronting white supremacist harms. For some BIPOC folks, engaging in some type of intense physical activity can help to release some stress from the reality of their oppression and provide a much-needed reprieve. Other BIPOC folks may feel empowered from engaging in advocacy or activism volunteering efforts to experience some semblance of control when white supremacist harms can often leave those impacted feeling helpless and hopeless. Especially given how the experience of white supremacist harms can negatively impact the mental health of BIPOC folks, it can be easier to cope when connected with a community that understands these issues so that they validate their feelings, rather than gaslight them due to their own ignorance or defensiveness. A Word From Verywell Unfortunately, depending on your context, it may be more challenging for some BIPOC folks to cultivate a supportive community, especially if marginalized in other ways as well—such as someone who is both Black and Muslim. They may find their Blackness welcomed in a space, but later find it to be Islamophobic. In cases like these, media from BIPOC creators can provide some semblance of connection, such as podcasts by hosts who share lived experiences and interests that are similar to those of listeners. In this way, BIPOC folks have often had to strategize creative solutions to white supremacist harms, much like their ancestors. 5 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Ashley W. The angry Black woman: the impact of pejorative stereotypes on psychotherapy with Black women. Soc Work Pub Health. 2014;29(1):27-34. doi:10.1080/19371918.2011.619449 Awad G, Norwood C, Taylor D et al. Beauty and body image concerns among African American college women. J Black Psychol. 2014;41(6):540-564. doi:10.1177/0095798414550864 Leavitt PA, Covarrubias R, Perez YA, Fryberg SA. “Frozen in time:” The impact of Native American media representations on identity and self‐understanding. J Soc Issues. 2015;71(1):39-53. doi:10.1111/josi.12095 Comas-Díaz L, Hall G, Neville HA. Racial trauma: Theory, research, and healing: introduction to the special issue. Am Psychol. 2019;74(1):1-5. doi:10.1037/amp0000442 Cooperative Children's Book Center. The numbers are in: 2019 CCBC diversity statistics. By Krystal Jagoo Krystal Kavita Jagoo is a social worker, committed to anti-oppressive practice. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? Other Helpful Report an Error Submit Speak to a Therapist Online Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation.