Panic Disorder Treatment What to Know About Zoloft (Sertraline) An SSRI Approved to Treat Anxiety, Depression, and Panic Disorder By Katharina Star, PhD Katharina Star, PhD Facebook LinkedIn Katharina Star, PhD, is an expert on anxiety and panic disorder. Dr. Star is a professional counselor, and she is trained in creative art therapies and mindfulness. Learn about our editorial process Updated on May 15, 2023 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Daniel B. Block, MD Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Block, MD LinkedIn Twitter Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Learn about our Medical Review Board Print Myling / Wikimedia Commons Table of Contents View All Table of Contents How Zoloft Works Zoloft Uses Before Taking Dosage Side Effects Warning and Interactions Cost of Zoloft Alternatives to Zoloft How Long It Lasts What is the most important information I should know about Zoloft? Do not take Zoloft if:you are taking an MAOI, pimozide, or disulfiram; oryou are allergic to sertraline; oryou are taking another medication that increases serotonin levels, including other antidepressants or supplements such as St. John's wort, 5-HTP, or SAMe. Zoloft (sertraline) is a tablet or liquid antidepressant medication that may be prescribed to treat a number of mental health disorders, including depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Zoloft is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is also sold under the generic name sertraline. SSRIs prevent the reuptake of serotonin, allowing more serotonin to stay in the brain, which may improve your overall mood, sleep, and appetite while decreasing compulsive behaviors, symptoms of anxiety, and panic attacks. How Zoloft Works Zoloft belongs to a class of medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). As an SSRI, Zoloft blocks the reabsorption, or uptake, of serotonin in the brain, leaving more of the chemical available. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that, among other responsibilities, helps regulate your mood, learning, and memory. In particular, serotonin is associated with positive emotions; in fact, it's sometimes called the "happy" chemical. Zoloft Uses Zoloft has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Major depressive disorder (MDD) Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) Social anxiety disorder SiberianArt / Getty Images Off-Label Uses Although Zoloft is not specifically FDA-approved to treat these disorders, some mental health providers or doctors may prescribe it off-label for generalized anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, premature ejaculation, and binge eating disorder. If you are prescribed Zoloft off-label, be sure you feel comfortable with this option, and if not, request alternative treatment options, and/or more information about why your provider is prescribing this particular medication for you. Before Taking Zoloft When prescribing Zoloft, your treating mental health provider and/or doctor may evaluate your mental health symptoms and overall health using: The DSM-5 to give you an official diagnosis A physical evaluation and/or lab tests to rule out underlying health conditions that may be impacting or causing symptoms Prior to prescribing Zoloft, your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms, their intensity, and their frequency. They may also give you assessment questionnaires to complete. Depending on your specific needs, you may be prescribed Zoloft while also attending psychotherapy, or sometimes on its own. Sertraline Vs. Zoloft The FDA notes that both generic sertraline and Zoloft have similar efficacy when it comes to treating the mental health disorders for which it's approved. However, negative perceptions of generic medications and differing non-active ingredients can impact how each drug affects each individual. Talk to your doctor about all medications, supplements, and vitamins that you currently take. While some drugs pose minor interaction risks, others may outright contraindicate use or prompt careful consideration as to whether the pros of treatment outweigh the cons in your case. Precautions and Contraindications Prior to taking Zoloft, let your doctor know: If you have an allergy to anything in Zoloft, including the inactive ingredients If you have a history of bleeding problems, seizures, liver problems, heart problems, low sodium blood levels, thyroid disorders, or glaucoma If you have a family history of bipolar disorder If you are taking an additional medication that increases serotonin levels If you are pregnant and which trimester you are in (third trimester is most at risk for complications) If you are nursing Zoloft is contraindicated for use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), pimozide, and disulfiram (when taken with liquid Zoloft). It is critical to disclose to your doctor all current and past medications (including allergy medications), your mental health history, as well as your family medical and mental health history to ensure that Zoloft is safe for you. Populations Most At Risk Older adults, children diagnosed with mental health disorders other than OCD, those who are pregnant or breastfeeding, and those who are taking diuretics are at greater risk for complications and may not be prescribed Zoloft. Other SSRIs Examples of other SSRIs used to treat similar mental health disorders include Prozac (fluoxetine), Paxil (paroxetine), and Lexapro (escitalopram). These medications also work by increasing the amount of serotonin available in the brain. Zoloft Dosage According to Pfizer, the recommended dosage of Zoloft will vary depending on the mental health disorder. Major depressive disorder: The starting dosage is 50 milligrams (mg) per day with a maximum of 200 mg per day.Obsessive compulsive disorder: The starting dosage is 25 mg per day for those 6 to 12 years old and 50 mg per day for those 13 years old and older, with a maximum dosage of 200 mg per day.Panic disorder: The starting dosage is 25 mg per day with a maximum dosage of 200 mg per day.Social anxiety disorder: The starting dosage is 25 mg per day with a maximum dosage of 200 mg per day.Post-traumatic stress disorder: The starting dosage is 25 mg per day with a maximum dosage of 200 mg per day.Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: The starting dosage for intermittent dosing (during the luteal phase only) is 50 mg per day with a maximum 100 mg per day. The starting dosage for continuous dosing (during the entire month) is 50 mg per day with a maximum dosage of 150 mg per day. All listed dosages are according to the drug manufacturer. Check your prescription and talk to your doctor to make sure you are taking the right dose for you. Modifications Certain populations may react to Zoloft differently and may require an adjusted dosage, as well as closer monitoring by their healthcare provider. Zoloft is not approved for use by children under the age of 6.The only FDA-approved use for children ages 6 to 17 is OCD, not any other mental health disorder.Children 6 to 17 years old may require closer monitoring and a subsequent dosage change if during the first few months of taking Zoloft they experience significant weight loss and/or suicidal ideation.Pregnant and nursing individuals will need to discuss the risks and benefits of Zoloft with their doctor, as it can pose a greater risk to their fetus and newborn during the third trimester and during breastfeeding.It is recommended that older patients begin with dosages on the lower end to watch for adverse reactions prior to increasing their dosage if needed. Liquid Zoloft While many individuals opt to take Zoloft in tablet form, an oral liquid is available. If you have a latex sensitivity or allergy, you may not be able to take the liquid form as the dropper contains a natural rubber. If taking the oral liquid:The solution must be diluted with half a cup of water, ginger ale, lemon aid, lemon-lime soda, or orange juice.The dosage must be taken immediately upon dilution. How to Take and Store Zoloft tablets should be stored at room temperature, out of direct light, with the bottle tightly sealed. They should also be stored out of reach of children and pets. Zoloft can be taken with or without food.Zoloft should never be taken with alcohol or illegal drugs.When taking Zoloft, avoid grapefruit juice and eating grapefruits as it can prevent the medication from being properly metabolized.Zoloft should not be taken within two weeks of taking an MAOI.When travelling, Zoloft can be stored in your carry-on or in checked baggage, although carry-on may be the safer bet in case your luggage gets lost. If you miss a dose of Zoloft, take it as soon as you remember, unless you are due to take your next dose soon. In other words, don't double your dosage. Keep in mind that you may experience some side effects within a few hours of your missed dosage, which may include dizziness, nausea, and feeling weak. If you have questions, be sure to reach out to your doctor. Zoloft Overdose If you have taken too much Zoloft (more than your typical dosage), contact your doctor right away. If they're unavailable, call Poison Control or head to the emergency room immediately. Side Effects of Zoloft Since Zoloft alters brain chemistry, you may be worried about how taking this medication will affect you. There's no way to predict how Zoloft will make you feel since everyone may respond differently to it. But these are the side effects to be aware of: Common Physical Side Effects You may experience physical side effects from taking Zoloft. These may include: DiarrheaDizzinessDrowsinessDry mouthHeadacheInsomniaNauseaShakingSweating Common Emotional Side Effects NervousnessAgitationRestlessness Sexual Side Effects Some of the most potentially bothersome side effects of Zoloft and other SSRIs are sexual issues. These can include reduced sexual desire or difficulty reaching orgasm, difficulty ejaculating, or less frequently the inability to maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction). These can be so distressing for some people that they may choose not to take the medication. If taking Zoloft interferes with your sex life, speak with your prescribing physician. Your doctor may suggest adding a second antidepressant. Wellbutrin (bupropion) has been found to sometimes counter the sexual side effects of SSRIs. Your doctor may prescribe a different medication to see if another one works better for you.Your doctor may adjust your dosage.Your doctor may want you to take the same dosage for a bit longer, as sometimes sexual side effects get better on their own. Your doctor may suggest taking another medication to improve sexual function. Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil), or Levitra (vardenafil) are all approved by the FDA to treat sexual problems in men. Some research suggests sildenafil may also improve sexual issues in some women. Severe Physical Side Effects Contact your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following: Allergic reaction symptoms like hives, rash, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and swelling of the face, mouth, throat, or tongue Difficulty sleeping Symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome Increase in bruising and/or bleeding Headaches Rapid heart rate Seizures Vomiting Severe Emotional Side Effects Increase in suicidal thoughts or attempts Aggression or emotional outbursts Increase in depressive symptoms Increase in panic attacks Confusion Extreme nervousness, irritability, or anxiety When to Go to the Emergency Room If you are unable to reach your doctor, head to the emergency room right away and be sure to tell them about the medication and dosage you are currently taking and when your severe symptoms began. Zoloft Warnings and Interactions Warnings and interactions when taking Zoloft: If you decide you want to stop taking Zoloft, do not quit cold turkey. Talk to your doctor first so they can help you gradually wean off of Zoloft. Quitting abruptly can cause you to potentially experience some serious sertraline withdrawal symptoms. Be mindful of any changes to your behavior, thoughts, and emotions, especially six to eight weeks after beginning the medication. If symptoms worsen, contact your doctor right away. Zoloft can increase the risk of bleeding when taken with aspirin, anticoagulants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Zoloft should not be taken with St. John's Wort , 5-HTP, or SAMe as these supplements can lead to serotonin syndrome. Illegal drugs and alcohol should not be taken while on Zoloft. Zoloft has a "black box warning" that, in some cases, children, teenagers, and young adults (under 25) may have increased suicidal thoughts or behavior when taking antidepressants, especially in the first few weeks after starting the drug or after the dose is changed. If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911. For more mental health resources, see the National Helpline Database. Serotonin Syndrome In rare cases, an antidepressant such as Zoloft can cause high levels of serotonin to build up in the body. This is most likely to happen to someone who's taking another medication that can elevate serotonin such as other antidepressants, certain pain or headache medications, and the herbal supplement St. John's wort. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include anxiety, agitation, sweating, confusion, tremors, restlessness, lack of coordination, and a rapid heart rate. Seek immediate medical attention if you have any of these signs or symptoms. Informing Your Doctor It's important to always make sure your doctor knows which other medications, including over-the-counter medicines and supplements, you are taking. Cost of Zoloft The price you might pay for Zoloft varies with many factors such as insurance coverage, region, market, strength, and more. Consult your doctor, insurance company representative, and pharmacist to get an idea of the drug's cost to you. Alternatives to Zoloft Healthcare providers often must try several antidepressants before finding the most effective drugs with the least side effects for their patients. As an SSRI, Zoloft has many alternatives. These include: Prozac (fluoxetine)Cymbalta (duloxetine)Lexapro (escitalopram)Paxil (paroxetine)Effexor (venlafaxine) How Long Is Zoloft Effective? As with many other antidepressants, you can build up a tolerance to Zoloft over time, which means the same dosage becomes less effective. If you feel Zoloft isn't working as well for you anymore, consult your healthcare provider. They might change your dosage or try a different antidepressant altogether. 7 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Singh HK, Saadabadi A. Sertraline. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2021. Desai RJ, Sarpatwari A, Dejene S, et al. Comparative effectiveness of generic and brand-name medication use: A database study of US health insurance claims. PLOS Medicine. 2019;16(3):e1002763. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002763 Lee AJ, Chan WK, Harralson AF, Buffum J, Bui B-CC. The effects of grapefruit juice on sertraline metabolism: An in vitro and in vivo study. Clinical Therapeutics. 1999;21(11):1890-1899. doi: 10.1016/S0149-2918(00)86737-5 Yasin W, Ahmed SI, Gouthro RV. Does bupropion impact more than mood? A case report and review of the literature. Cureus. 2019;11(3). doi: 10.7759/cureus.4277 Nurnberg HG, Hensley PL, Lauriello J. Sildenafil in the treatment of sexual dysfunction induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: An overview. CNS Drugs. 2000;13(5):321-335. AMA Journal of Ethics. Antidepressants and the FDA's black-box warning: Determining a rational public policy in the absence of sufficient evidence. Volpi-Abadie J, Kaye AM, Kaye AD. Serotonin syndrome. Ochsner J. 2013;13(4):533-40. By Katharina Star, PhD Katharina Star, PhD, is an expert on anxiety and panic disorder. Dr. Star is a professional counselor, and she is trained in creative art therapies and mindfulness. See Our Editorial Process Meet Our Review Board Share Feedback Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What is your feedback? 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